Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 117–124 | Cite as

Late Jurassic-Late Permian dolomites in central Saudi Arabia: Ca:Mg stoichiometry and Sr-content

  • Khaled M. Banat
  • Mohammed H. Basyoni
  • Rashad H. Zeidan


A difference in the depositional environments of the Upper Permian and the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks exposed in central Saudi Arabia led to a difference in the initial dolomite geochemistry; i.e. Ca: Mg stoichiometry and Sr-content.

The Khuff dolomites are characterized by: (i) well-ordering (high R-value) (ii) stoichiometric nature (with an average CaCO3 of about 1 mole %) (iii) and low Sr-content (from 55 ppm to 183 ppm) relative to Holocene marine dolomites. The Khuff carbonates were deposited in a sabkha-like, hypersaline environment, where the increased salinity favored the precipitation of a better-ordered and more stoichiometric dolomite than would be expected to form had the dolomites formed in a normal marine environment. Later recrystallization of the Khuff dolomite also may have increased the degree of ordering in the dolomites. The low strontium content in the Khuff dolomite could have been due to depletion during diagenetic modification of the initially precipitated non-ideal Khuff dolomite.

Jubaila carbonates were formed in a normal marine environment, where the source of Mg+2 responsible for the dolomitization of its upper part is related to the prograding of the supratidal sabkha front formed at the terminal Jubaila stages. The Jubaila dolomites are relatively poorly ordered with a CaCO3 content of 7 mole % and an average Sr-content of 241 ppm.


Dolomite Jurassic Anhydrite Evaporite Grainstone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AL-LABOUN, A.A., 1988, The distribution of Carboniferous-Permian siliciclastic rocks in the greater Arabian basin:Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, p. 362–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AL-JALLAL, I.A, 1987, Diagenetic effects on reservoir properties of Permian Khuff Formation in eastern Saudi Arabia:Society of Petroleum Engineers:1574, p. 465–475.Google Scholar
  3. AL-JALLAL, I.A., KAMAL, R.A., and McCLURE, H.A., 1987, Sedimentary features of the Permian Khuff Formation, a fossil analog to Quaternary Arabian Gulf depositional environments: Presentation on conference on Quaternary sediments in the Arabian Gulf and Mesopotamian Region, Kuwait.Google Scholar
  4. AL-SHARHAN, A.S., and KENDALL, C.G.ST., 1986, Pre-Cambrian to Jurassic rocks of Arabian Gulf and adjacent areas: their facies, depositional setting, and hydrocarbon habitat:American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, p. 977–1002.Google Scholar
  5. BAKER, P.A., and BURNS, S.J., 1985, Occurrence and formation of dolomite in organic-rich continental margin sediments:American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 1917–1930.Google Scholar
  6. BASYONI, M.H., 1984, Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the northern Khuff Formation, Saudi Arabia. Ph.D. thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  7. BASYONI, M., ZEIDAN, R.H., and BANAT, K.M., 1992, Petrographic and geochemical properties and related economic potential of the Khuff and Jubaila carbonates in central Saudi Arabia. King Abdul Aziz University sponsored project no. 577/408, (unpublished report).Google Scholar
  8. CARBALLO, J.D., LAND, L.S., and MISER, D.E., 1987, Holocene dolomitization of supratidal sediments by active tidal pumping, Sugarloaf Key, Florida:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 57, p. 153–165.Google Scholar
  9. CHAI, L., NAVROTSKY, A., and REEDER, R.J., 1995, Engergetics of calcium-rich dolomite:Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 93–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FÜCHTBAUER, H., 1974, Sediments and sedimentary rocks 1. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 464 p.Google Scholar
  11. FÜCHTBAUER, H. and GOLDSCHMIDT, H., 1965, Beziehungen Zwischen Calciumgehalt und Bildungs-bedingungen der Dolomite:Geologische Rundschau, v. 55, p. 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. GAO, G. and LAND, L.S., 1991a, Nodular chert from the Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, SW Oklahoma: A combined field, petrographic and isotopic study:Sedimentology, v. 38, p. 857–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. GAO, G. and LAND, L.S., 1991b, Early Cool Creek dolomite, Middle Arbuckle Groop, Slick Hills, SW Oklahoma, U.S.A.: Origin and modification:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 61, p. 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. GOLDSMITH, J.R. and GRAF, D.L., 1958b, Structural and compositional variations in some natural dolomites:Journal of Geology, v. 66, p. 678–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. GRAF, D.L. and GOLDSMITH, J.R., 1956, Some hydrothermal syntheses of dolomite and protodolomite:Journal of Geology, v. 64, p. 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. LAND, L.S., 1980, The isotopic and trace elements geochemistry of dolomite,in Gao, G. and Land, L.S., Nodular chert from the Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, SW Oklahoma: a combined field, petrographic and isotopic study:Sedimentology, v. 38, p. 857–870.Google Scholar
  17. LEEDER, M.R. and ZEIDAN, R.H., 1977, Giant Late Jurassic sabkhas of Arabian Tethys:Nature, v. 268, p. 42–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. LINDHOLM, R.C. and FINKELMAN, R.B., 1972, Calcite staining: Semiquantitative determination of ferrous iron:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 42, p. 239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. LUMSDEN, D.N., and CHIMAHUSKY, J.S., 1980, Relationship between dolomite nonstoichiometry and carbonate facies parameters,in Peryt, T.M and Magaritz, M., Genesis of evaporite-associated platform Dolomite (Zechstein, Upper Pemian), Leba elevation, Northern Poland:Sedimentology, v. 37, p. 745–761.Google Scholar
  20. MARSCHNER, H., 1968, Ca−Mg distribution in carbonates from the Lower Keuperin NW Germany,in Sperber, C.M., Wilkinson B.H., and Peacor, D.R., Rock composition, dolomite stoichiometry and rock/water reactions in dolomitic carbonate rocks:Journal of Geology, v. 92, p. 609–622.Google Scholar
  21. MAZZULLO, S.J., REID, A.M., and GREGG, J.M., 1978, Dolomitization of Holocene Mg-calcite supratidal deposits, Ambergris Cay, Belize:Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 98, p. 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MULLER, G., 1967, Methods in sedimentary petrology. Hafner Publishing Company, New York, London, 283 p.Google Scholar
  23. PERYT, T.M. and MAGARITZ, M., 1990, Genesis of evaporite-associated platform dolomites: Case study of the Main Dolomite (Zechstein, Upper Permian), Leba elevation, Northern Poland:Sedimentology, v. 36, p. 745–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. POWERS, R.W., RAMIRES, L.F., REDOND, C.D., and ELBERG, E.L., 1966, Geology of the Arabian Pen-insula: Sedimentary Geology of Saudi Arabia:US Geological Survey Professional paper 560D, 147 p.Google Scholar
  25. ROSEN, M.R. and COSHELL, L., 1992, A new location of Holocene dolomite formation, Lake Hayward, Western Australia:Sedimentology, v. 39, p. 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. SCOFFIN, T.P., 1987, An introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks. Blackie Company Publising, New York, 274 p.Google Scholar
  27. SPERBER, C.M., WILKINSON, B.H., and PEACOR, D.R., 1984, Rock composition, dolomite stoichiometry and rock/water reactions in dolomitic carbonate rocks:Journal of Geology, v. 92, p. 609–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SPOTEL, C. and BURNS, S.J., 1991, Formation of18O-depleted dolomite within a marine evaporitic sequence, Triassic Reichenhall Formation, Austria:Sedimentology, v. 38, p. 1041–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. TOUTIN-MORTIN, N., 1992, The Permian carbonates in Provence (Southeastern France):Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 7, p. 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. TOUTIN-MORTIN, N., FREYTET, P., and CUSSEY, R., 1992, Continental Permian carbonates of western Europe and northern Africa:Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 7, p. 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. VAHRENKAMP, V.C., and SWART, P.K., 1990, New distribution coefficient for the incorporation of strontium into dolomite and implications for the formation of ancient dolomite:Geology, v. 18, p. 387–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. VEIZER, J., 1983, Chemical diagensis of carbonates: theory and application of trace element technique,in Wallance, M.C., Origin of dolomitization on the Barbwire Terrace, Canning Basin, Western Australia:Sedimentology, v. 37, p. 105–122.Google Scholar
  33. VIDETICH, P.E., 1994, Dolomitization and H2S generation in the Permian Khuff Formation, off shore Dubai, United Arab Emirates:Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 9, p. 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. WALLANCE, M.C., 1990, Origin of dolomitization on the Barbwire Terrace, Canning Basin, Western Australia:Sedimentology, v. 37, p. 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. WEBER, J.N., 1964, Trace elements composition of dolostones and dolomites and its bearing on the dolomite problem:Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 28, p. 1817–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. ZEIDAN, R.H., 1981, Sedimentology and diagenesis of the Upper Jurassic Jubaila Limestone in Central Arabia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaled M. Banat
    • 1
  • Mohammed H. Basyoni
    • 2
  • Rashad H. Zeidan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesYarmouk UniversityIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Faculty of Earth Science, Department of Petroleum and SedimentologyKing Abdul-Aziz UniversityIrbidJordan

Personalised recommendations