Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 14–20 | Cite as

Classifications of hardgrounds based upon their strength properties

  • A. Umran DoganEmail author
  • Aydin Ozsan
  • Meral Dogan
  • Celal Karpuz
  • Robert L. Brenner


Rock samples from the Baglum-Kosrelik area, 30 km north of Ankara, Turkey have been studied petrographically in detail to differentiate between nodular limestones and hardgrounds. However, it is found that petrographic criteria alone may not always be used to differentiate between nodular limestones and true hardgrounds. Distinction between hardgrounds and other wellindurated carbonate rocks can be made based upon the strength properties of the rocks, including uniaxial compressive strengths, triaxial compressive strengths, modulus ratios, and elastic constant ratios. This study showed that rock petrophysical characteristics could be used to develop criteria for distinguishing hardgrounds. For example, strength tests using the International Society for Rock Mechanics result in very high strength and extreme hardness values, with a minimum uniaxial compressive strength value, of 130 MPa with 10% standard deviation, therefore the rock can be classified as “true” hardground. Classification of these carbonates in this manner would facilitate quantitative discussions between hardground carbonate petrographers and engineering geologists. Hardgrounds throughout the world then could be tested and classified accordingly.


hardgrounds strength properties classification Jurassic Turkey 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ARKELL, W.J., 1956, Jurassic Geology of the World. Hafner Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  2. BIENIAWSKI, Z.T., 1973, Engineering Classification of Jointed Rock Masses:Transactions of South African Institute of Civil Engineering, v. 15, no. 12, p. 335–344.Google Scholar
  3. BIENIAWSKI, Z.T., 1984, Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 272 p.Google Scholar
  4. BRINKMANN, R., 1976, Geology of Turkey. Enke Publishing, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  5. CLARI, P.A., DELA PIERRE, F., and MARTIRE, L., 1995, Discontinues in carbonate successions: identification, interpretation and classification of some Italian examples:Sedimentary Geology, v. 100, p. 97–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. COATES, D.F., 1964, Classification of Rocks for Rock Mechanics:International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, v. 1, p. 421–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DEERE, D.U. and MILLER, R.P., 1966, Engineering classification and index properties of intact rock, Tech. Rep. AFNL-TR-65-116, Air Force Weapons Labratory, New Mexico.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ROCK MECHANICS (ISRM), 1981, Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring — ISRM Suggested Methods. Pergamon Press, London, 211 p.Google Scholar
  9. KENNEDY, W.J. and GARRISON, R.E., 1975, Morphology and genesis of nodular chalks and hardgrounds in the Upper Cretaceous of Southern England:Sedimentology, v. 22, no. 3, p. 311–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. OZSAN, A. and KARPUZ, C., 1995, A preliminary design approach for Guledar irrigation dam project:Bulletin of International Association of Engineering Geology, v. 52, p. 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. SEYFRIED, H., 1981, Genesis of hardgrounds in the Tethyan Jurassic, International Association of Sedimentologists the 2nd European Reg. Meeting, Bologna, p. 181–184.Google Scholar
  12. VAROL, B. and GOKTEN, E., 1994, The facies properties and depositional environments of nodular limestones and red marly limestones (Ammonitico Rosso) in Ankara Jurassic sequence, Central Turkey:Terra Nova, v. 6, no. 1, p. 64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. WILSON, M.A. and PALMER, T.J., 1992, Hardgrounds and Hardground Faunas. University of Wales, Aberystwyth Institute of Earth Studies Publications, no. 9, p. 1–131.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Umran Dogan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aydin Ozsan
    • 1
  • Meral Dogan
    • 3
  • Celal Karpuz
    • 4
  • Robert L. Brenner
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Mining EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Department of GeoscienceUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations