Advertisement

Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 53–68 | Cite as

Diagenesis and mineralization processes in Devonian carbonate rocks of the Siding-Gudan lead-zinc mineral subdistrict, Guangxi, Southwest China

  • Werner Schneider
  • Aiqin Geng
  • Xiaozeng Liu
Article

Abstract

The lead-zinc ore deposits of the Siding-Gudan mineral subdistrict Guangxi are part of the large Nanling district of South China, and hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks. The ore bodies occur significantly along main faults and fault zones, and concentrate up to 300 meters above the Cambrian/Devonian unconformity. Connected with hydrothermal karst, size and volume of the ore bodies increase in proximity to this unconformity.

Moving from the unaffected host rocks to the center of the ore bodies, four zones can be discriminated by the mineral assemblage (pyrite, sphalerite, galena) as well as by the degree of ordering, Ca/Mg, and Fe/Mn ratios of different dolomites. Homogenization temperatures range from 80–100°C (Presqu'ile dolomite) to 230–260°C (massive sphalerite). The sulfides reveal δ34S = −20 to + 8‰, and fluid inclusions display a salinity of 5–12 wt % equivalent NaCl.

The diagenetic and hydrothermal history is similar to that of classic Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfide mineral deposits as, for example, Pine Point in Canada.

Mineralization and remobilization of the sulfides took place during a wide time span from late Paleozoic through Mesozoic. Both processes are considered as an interaction of saline basinal brines ascended from the adjoining dewatering trough, and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids of several magmatic-tectonic events.

Keywords

Dolomite Galena Saddle Dolomite Oolitic Shoal Dolomite Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADAMS, J.E. and RHODES, M.L., 1960, Dolomitization by seepage refluxion:Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., v. 44, p. 1912–1920.Google Scholar
  2. ANDERSON, G.M., 1975, Precipitation of Mississippi Valley-type ores:Econ. Geology, v. 70, p. 937–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ANDERSON, G.M., and MACQUEEN, R. W., 1982, Ore deposit models — 6. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits:Geoscience Canada, v. 9, p. 108–117.Google Scholar
  4. BATHURST, R.G.C., 1975,Carbonate Sediments and Their Diagenesis: Developments in Sedimentology 12, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 685 pp.Google Scholar
  5. BEALES, F.W. and HARDY, J.L., 1980, Criteria for the recognition of diverse dolomite types with an emphasis on studies on host rocks for Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits,in Zenger, D. H., Dunham, J. B. and Ethington, R.L., eds.,Concepts and models of dolomitization: Soc. Econ. Paleont. Min. Spec. Publ. no. 28, p. 197–213.Google Scholar
  6. CATHLES, L.M. and SMITH, A.T., 1983, Thermal constraints on the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits and their implications for episodic basin dewatering and deposit genesis:Econ. Geology, v. 78, p. 983–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DEFFEYES, K.S., LUCIA, F.J. and WEYL, P.K., 1965, Dolomitization of recent and Plio-Pleistocene sediments by marine evaporite waters on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles,in Pray, L. C. and Murray, R.C., eds.,Dolomitization and Limestone Diagenesis: Soc. Econ. Paleont. Min. Spec. Publ. 13, p. 71–88.Google Scholar
  8. DZULYNSKI, S. and SASS-GUSTKIEWICZ, M., 1985, Hydrothermal karst phenomena as a factor in the formation of Mississippi-Valley-type deposits,in Wolf, K.H., ed.,Handbook of Stratabound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 391–439.Google Scholar
  9. ELLIS, A.J., 1979, Explored geothermal systems,in Barnes, H.L. ed.,Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, 2nd Ed.: Wiley, New York, p. 632–683.Google Scholar
  10. FRITZ, P. and JACKSON, S.A., 1972, Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of Middle Devonian dolomites from Pine Point, northern Canada: 24th Internat. Geol. Congr. Proceed., Section 6, p. 230–243.Google Scholar
  11. GARRELS, R.M. and CHRIST, C.L., 1965,Solution, Minerals and Equilibria, Harper and Row, New York, 450 pp.Google Scholar
  12. GARVEN, G., 1985, The role of regional fluid flow in the genesis of the Pine Point deposit, Western Canada sedimentary basin:Econ. Geology, v. 80, p. 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. GREGG, J.M. and SHELTON, K.L., 1989, Geochemical and petrographic evidence for fluid sources and pathway during dolomitization and lead-zinc mineralization in Southeast Missouri: A review:Carbonates and Evaporites, V. 4, no. 2. p. 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. HOEFS, J., 1980,Stable Isotope Geochemistry — Minerals and Rocks 9: Springer, Heidelberg, 208 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. JACOBSEN, P.L. and USDOWSKI, H.E., Partitioning of strontium between calcite, dolomite, and liquids: An experimental study under high temperature diagenetic condition, and a model for the prediction of mineral pairs for geothermometry:Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., v. 59, p. 171–185.Google Scholar
  16. KRAUSKOPF, K.B., 1982,Introduction to Geochemistry, 2nd ed., McGraw Hill, London, 617 pp.Google Scholar
  17. KREBS, W. and MACQUEEN, R.W., 1984, Sequence of diagenetic and mineralization events, Pine Point lead-zinc property, North west Territories, Canada:Bull. Canad. Petrol. Geol. v. 32, p. 434–464.Google Scholar
  18. KYLE, J.R., 1981, Geology of the Pine Point leadzinc district,in Wolf, K.H., ed.,Handbook of Strata-Bound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, 9:, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 643–741.Google Scholar
  19. MAZZULLO, S.J. and GREGG, J.M., 1989, Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization and relationships to carbonate diagenesis: Introductory remarks:Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 4, no. 2, p. 131–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. OHLE, E.L., 1976, Precipitation mechanisms for Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits:Econ. Geol., v. 71, p. 1060–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. RADKE, B.M. and MATHIS, R.L., 1980, On the formation and occurrence of saddle dolomite:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 50, p. 1149–1168.Google Scholar
  22. RYE, R.O. and OHMOTO, H., 1974, Sulfur and carbon isotopes and ore genesis: A Review:Econ. Geology, v. 69, p. 826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. SANGSTER, D.F., 1976, Carbonate hosted lead-zinc deposits,in Wolf, K.H., ed.,Handbook of Strata-Bound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, 6: Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 447–456.Google Scholar
  24. SHARP, J.M. Jr., 1978, Energy and momentum transport model of the Ovachita basin and its possible impact on formation of economic mineral deposits:Econ. Geology, v. 73, p. 1057–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. SIBLEY, D.F. and GREGG, J.M., 1987, Classification of dolomite rock textures:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 57, no. 6, p. 967–975.Google Scholar
  26. SKALL, H., 1975, The paleoenvironment of the Pine Point lead-zinc district:Econ. Geol., v. 70, p. 22–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SKINNER, B.J., 1967, Precipitation of Mississippi Valley-type ores: a possible mechanism. —Econ. Geol. Monogr., 3, p. 363–370.Google Scholar
  28. SVERJENSKI, D.A., 1986, Genesis of Mississippi Valley-type leadzinc deposits:Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 14, p. 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. SWINCHATT, J.P., 1969, Algal boring: a possible depth indicator in carbonate rocks and sediments:Bull. Geol. Soc. America, v. 80, p. 1391–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. VEIZER, J. and HOEFS, J., 1976, The nature of O18/ O16 and C13/C12 secular trends in sedimentary rocks:Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 40, p. 1387–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. VOSS, R.L., HAGNI, R.D. and GREGG, J.M., 1989, Sequential deposition of zoned dolomite and its relationship to sulfide mineral paragenetic sequence in the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri:Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 4, no. 2, p. 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. WU YI, ZHOU HUAILING, JIANG TINGCAN, FANG DANNIAN and HUANG WUSHENG, 1987, Sedimentary facies, paleogeography and related mineral deposits of Devonian in Guangxi: Explanations to the geological map of Guangxi Province, p. 261–292, Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Nanning, China.Google Scholar
  33. ZENG YUNFU, SHEN DEQI, ZHANG JINQUAN, CHI SANCHUAN, GE CHACHUA and LIU WENJUN, 1987, Strata-bound ore deposits in the Devonian of Nanling District, South China: Geol. Memoirs Series 4, No. 6, 213 pp. (Geol. Publ. House, Beijing).Google Scholar
  34. ZHAI YOUHUA, ZHONG KENG and WANG JINBANG, 1985, Classification, geological features and mineralization of Pb−Zn ore deposits in Guangxi, China: Report Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Guangxi, 12 pp., Nanning.Google Scholar
  35. ZHONG KENG, LI ZHICAI and LI MINGSHENG, 1985, An outline of regional Geology of Guanxi. — Report Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Guangxi, 15 pp., Nanning.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Schneider
    • 1
  • Aiqin Geng
    • 2
  • Xiaozeng Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Geologie and PaläontologieTechnische UniversitätBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum GeologyCollege of GeologyChengdu, SichuanChina

Personalised recommendations