Advertisement

Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Ras Shukeir sabkha and associated salina deposits: Comparison with a Holocene depositional equivalent

  • Sanaa Abdel Wahab
Article

Abstract

The Ras Shukeir sabkha, located along the Red Sea coastal plain is a siliciclastic sabkha enclosing some residual salinas, that are confined to localized depressions. A Holocene evaporite sequence at the southern edge of the area is considered to be an ancient equivalent to the present day sabkha-salina complex.

A depositional model is proposed for the sabkha-salina showing the nature and distribution of the microfacies in three different zones: as subaerial sabkha deposits along the supratidal flat, and as subaqueous deposits along the margins and also within the salinas. The area is fed by resurging, mixed-source groundwater influx that fluctuates with the seasons, and this groundwater table is presently very shallow not exceeding one meter below the surface. The ground water regime, governed by replenishment in winter and evaporative depletion in summer, controls the mechanism of the evaporite deposition and the distribution of the different microfacies.

A comparison of the recent deposits with the older Holocene evaporite sequence illustrates the similarities and differences between the two deposits and establishes the diagenetic alterations that affect the recent sabkha-salina deposits because they are clearly developed in the Holocene equivalent.

Keywords

Gypsum Halite Anhydrite Evaporite Microfacies 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABDEL WAHAB S., WALI, A.M.A., and TAHER, A.G., 1986, On some supratidal features, Ras Shukeir coastal sabkha, Red Sea, Egypt. E.G.P.C. Eighth Exploration Conference: Centenary of First Oil Well.Google Scholar
  2. ALI, Y.A., and WEST, I.M., 1983, Relationship of modern gypsum nodules in sabkhas of loess to compositions of brines and sediments in northern Egypt:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 53, p. 1151–1168.Google Scholar
  3. ARTHURTON, R.S., 1973, Experimentally produced halite compared with Triassic layered halite rock from Cheshire, England:Sedimentology, v. 20, p. 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BUSSON, G., and PERTHUISOT, J.P., 1977, Interet de la sebkha el Melah (sud-Tunisien) pour l'interpretation de series evaporitiques anciennes:Sed. Geol., v. 19, p. 139–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BUTLER, G.P., 1970, Holocene gypsum and anhydrite of the Abu Dhabi sabkha, Trucial Coast: an alternative explanation of origin: in Rau J. L. and Dellwig, L.F., eds.,Third Symposium on Salt, v. 1, North Ohio Geological Society, p. 120–152.Google Scholar
  6. CASTENS-SEIDELL, B., and HARDIE, L.A., 1983, Gypsum-anhydrite deposition in sabkhas: New observation from the Holocene tidal flats of the N.W. Gulf of California (abs.):Geol. Soc. Amer., Abst. with Program, v. 15, p. 540.Google Scholar
  7. CODY, R.D., and CODY, A.B., 1988, Gypsum nucleation and crystal morphology in analog saline terrestrial environments:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 58, p. 247–255.Google Scholar
  8. DRONKERT, H., 1978,A preliminary note on a recent deposit in South Spain: Instituto de Investigacones Geologics, Diputacion Provincial, Universidad de Barcelona, v. 32 (1977), p. 153–165.Google Scholar
  9. FRIEDMAN, G.M., AMIEL, A.J., BRAUN, M., and MILLER, D.S., 1973, Generation of carbonate particles and laminites in algal mats examples from sea marginal hypersaline pool, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea:Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists, v. 57, p. 541–557.Google Scholar
  10. GAVISH, E., 1974, Geochemistry and mineralogy of a recent sabkha along the coast of Sinai, Gulf of Suez:Sedimentology, v. 21, p. 397–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. GAVISH, E., 1980, Recent sabkhas marginal to the southern Sinai, Red Sea:in Nissenbaum, A, ed., Hypersaline brines and evaporitic environments, Developments in Sedimentology no. 28, Elsevier, p. 233–251.Google Scholar
  12. HANDFORD, C.R., 1988, Depositional interaction of siliciclastics and marginal marine evaporites:in Schreiber, B.C. ed., Evaporites and Hydrocarbons: Columbia University Press, p. 139–181.Google Scholar
  13. HSÜ, K. J., and SCHNEIDER, J., 1973, Progress report on dolomitization-hydrology of Abu Dhabi sabkhas, Arabian Gulf:in Purser, B. H., ed.,The Persian Gulf: Springer-Verlag, p. 409–422.Google Scholar
  14. KENDALL, C.G.St.C., and WARREN, J.K., 1988, Peritidal Evaporites and their sedimentary assemblages,in Schreiber, B.C., ed.,Evaporites and Hydrocarbons: Columbia University Press, p. 66–138.Google Scholar
  15. KINSMAN, D.J.J., 1966, Gypsum and anhydrite of recent age, Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf:in Rau, J.L., ed.,Second Symposium On Salt: North Ohio Geological Society, p. 302–326.Google Scholar
  16. KINSMAN, D.J.J., 1969, Modes of formation, sedimentary associations, and diagnostic features of shallow water and supratidal evaporites:Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., v. 53, p. 830–840.Google Scholar
  17. KUSHNIR, J., 1981, Formation and early diagenesis of varved evaporitic sediments in a coastal hypersaline pool:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 51, p. 1193–1203.Google Scholar
  18. LOWENSTEIN, T.K., and HARDIE, L.A., 1985, Criteria for the recognition of salt pan evaporites:Sedimentology, v. 32, p. 627–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ORTI CABO, F.C., 1976, An approach to the petrographical study of secondary gypsum microstructures and their origin. Unpub. thesis, D.I.C., Imperial College, London. 140 p.Google Scholar
  20. NISSENBAUM, A. (editor), 1980,Hypersaline Brines and Evaporitic Environments. Elsevier, 270 p.Google Scholar
  21. PIERRE, C.L., ORTIEB, L., and PERSON, A., 1984, Supratidal evaporitic dolomite at Oji de Liebre lagoon: Mineralogical and isotopic arguments for primary crystallization:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 54, p. 1049–1061.Google Scholar
  22. SCHREIBER, B.C., and SCHREIBER, E., 1977, The salt that was:Geology, v. 5, p. 527–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. SCHREIBER, B.C., 1978, Environments of subaqueous gypsum deposition:in Dean, W. E. and Schreiber, B. C., eds.,Marine Evaporites: SEPM short course Notes #4, p. 43–73.Google Scholar
  24. SCHREIBER, B.C., ROTH, M.S., and HELMAN, M.L., 1982, Recognition of primary facies characteristics and the differentiation of these forms from diagenetic overprints,in Handford, C.R., Loucks, R.G., and Davies, G.R., eds.,Depositional and Diagenetic Spectra of Evaporites: SEPM Workshop #3, Calgary, p 1–32.Google Scholar
  25. SHEARMAN, D.J., 1963, Recent anhydrite, gypsum, dolomite and halite from the coastal flats of the Arabian shore of the Persian Gulf:Proc. Geol. Soc. London, v. 75, p. 155–162.Google Scholar
  26. WARDLAW, N.C., and SCHWERDTNER, W.M., 1966, Halite-anhydrite seasonal layers in Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada:Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., v. 77, p. 331–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. WARREN, J.K., 1982a, The hydrological setting, occurrence and significance of gypsum in late Quaternary salt lakes in South Australia:Sedimentology, v. 52, p. 609–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. WARREN, J.K., 1982b, The hydrological significance of Holocene tepees, stromatolites and box limestones in coastal salinas in south Australia:Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 29, p. 1171–1201.Google Scholar
  29. WARREN, J.K., 1985, On the significance of evaporite lamination: in B.C. Schreiber, ed.,Sixth Symposium on Salt: The Salt Institute, p. 161–171.Google Scholar
  30. WARREN, J.K., and KENDALL, C.G.St.C., 1985, Comparison of sequences formed in marine sabkha (subaerial) and salina (subaqueous) settings: Modern and Ancient:Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., v. 69, p. 1013–1023.Google Scholar
  31. WEST, I.M., ALI, Y.A., and HILMY, M.E., 1979, Primary gypsum nodules in two modern sabkhas on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt:Geology, v. 7, p. 354–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanaa Abdel Wahab
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology DepartmentCairo UniversityEgypt

Personalised recommendations