Advertisement

Gedrag & gezondheid

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 125–135 | Cite as

Religie en subjectief welbevinden. Een letterlijk negatieve link

  • Nico A W ten HaveEmail author
  • Dirk Hutsebaut
Artikelen
  • 162 Downloads

Summary

Religion and subjective well-being. A literal negative link

Is there a (predictive) link between the multidimensional concepts religion and subjective well-being? Seven hundred thirty four adults (17- 84 years) completed five questionnaires: the Post-Critical Belief Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Purpose in Life test and the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression questionnaire. Holding at a minimum significance level of p<.01, a literal interpretational style appeared linked to a negative (affective) feeling of life. For a mere rejecting religious attitude this negativity spreads to the more thoughtful (cognitive) evaluations of one’s own life. Positive though is the connection between satisfaction and a personal, ‘truly lived’ religiosity. An ‘earthly’ symbolic religiosity remains absent. This results offers full support for the Post-Critical Belief Scale, and provides a clear conceptual support for the full fourcomponent model of subjective well-being.

Literatuur

  1. Allport, G.W., & Ross, J.M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432–433.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, F.M., & McKennell, A.C. (1979). Measures of self-reported well-being: Their affective, cognitive, and other components. Social Indicators Research, 8, 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, F.M., & Withey, S.B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York, NY: Plenum Press. Argyle, M. (1997). Is happiness a cause of health? Psychology and Health, 12, 769 – 781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyle, M., & Crossland, J. (1987). The dimensions of positive emotions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 127–137.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Behling, O., & Law, K.S. (2000). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments: Problems and solutions. Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences No. 133. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Blaine, B.E., & Crocker, J. (1995). Religiousness, race, and psychological well-being: Exploring social psychological mediators. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1031–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaine, B.E., Trivedi, P., & Eshleman, A. (1998). Religious belief and the self-concept: Evaluating the implications for psychological adjustment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1040–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braam, A.W., Beekman, A.T.F., Deeg, D.J.H., & Tilburg, W. van (1994). Religiositeit en depressieve symptomen bij ouderen. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 36, 509–519.Google Scholar
  9. Bradburn, N.M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  10. Bradburn, N. M., & Caplovitz, D. (1965). Reports on happiness. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  11. Bryant, F.B., & Veroff, J. (1986). Dimensions of subjective mental health in American men and women. In F.M. Andrews (Ed.), Research on the quality of life(pp.117–146). Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  12. Cattell, R.B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245 – 276.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Crandall, V.C., & Rasmussen, R.D. (1975). Purpose in life as related to specific values. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 483–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crumbaugh, J.C. (1968). Cross-validation of Purpose-in-Life Test based on Frankl’s concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 24, 74–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Crumbaugh, J.C., & Maholick, L.T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: The psychometric approach to Frankl’s concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 200–207.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness, and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E., & Clifton, D. (2002). Life satisfaction and religiosity in broad probability samples. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 206 – 209.Google Scholar
  18. Diener, E., & Emmons, R.A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105– 1117.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E., Suh, E.M., Lucas, R.E., & Smith, H.L. (1999). Subjective wellbeing: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276– 302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donahue, M.J. (1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 400– 419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duriez, B., Fontaine, J.R.J., & Hutsebaut, D. (2000). A further elaboration of the Post-Critical Belief scale: Evidence for the existence of four different approaches to religion in Flanders-Belgium. Psychologica Belgica, 40, 153–181.Google Scholar
  23. Duriez, B., & Hutsebaut, D. (in druk). A slow and easy introduction to the Post-Critical Belief Scale. Internal structure and external relationships [elektronische versie]. In D. M. Wulff (Ed.), Handbook of the psychology of religion. Oxford University Press. Gevonden op 10 juni 2005, op https://doi.org/ppw.kuleuven.be/religion// religion.htm.
  24. Ellison, C.G. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 80–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellison, C.G., Boardman, J.D., Williams, D.R., & Jackson, J. (2001). Religious participation and the lifestress paradigm: Findings from the 1995 Detroit area study. Social Forces, 80, 215–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fontaine, J.R.J., Duriez, B., Luyten, P., & Hutsebaut, D. (2003). The internal structure of the Post-Critical Belief Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Francis, L.J., Robbins, M., & White, A. (2003). Correlation between religion and happiness: A replication. Psychological Reports, 92, 51–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. French, S., & Joseph, S. (1999). Religiosity and its association with happiness, purpose in life, and self-actualisation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2, 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gartner, J. (1996). Religious commitment, mental health, and prosocial behavior: A review of the empirical literature. In E.P. Shafranske (Ed.), Religion and the clinical practice of psychology(pp. 187–214). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Genia, V., & Shaw, D.G. (1991). Religion, intrinsic-extrinsic orientation, and depression. Review of Religious Research, 32, 274–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hackney, C.H., & Sanders, G.S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hadaway, C.K., & Roof, W.C. (1978). Religious commitment and the quality of life in American society. Review of Religious Research, 19, 295– 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (1998). Musical and religious experiences and their relationship to happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Himmelfarb, S., & Murrell, S.A. (1983). Reliability and validity of five mental health scales in older persons. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 333–339.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunsberger, B., Pratt, M., & Pancer, S.M. (2001). Religious versus nonreligious socialization: Does religious background have implications for adjustment? International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 105–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hutsebaut, D. (1996). Post-critical belief: A new approach to the religious attitude problem. Journal of Empirical Theology, 9, 48–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hutsebaut, D. (1998). Cursus Godsdienstpsychologie. Ongepubliceerd manuscript: K. U. Leuven. Cursusdienst Psychologische Kring.Google Scholar
  39. Hutsebaut, D. (2000). Post-Critical Belief Scales: Exploration of a possible developmental process. Journal of Empirical Theology, 13, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kirkpatrick, L.A. (1989). A psychometric analysis of the Allport-Ross and Feagin measures of intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation. In M. Lynn & D.O. Moberg (Eds.), Research in the social scientific study of religion(Vol. 1, pp. 1–31). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kirkpatrick, L.A., & Hood, R.W.Jr. (1990). Intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation: The boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29, 442–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larsen, R.J., Diener, E., & Emmons, R.A. (1985). An evaluation of subjective well-being measures. Social Indicators Research, 17, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lewis, C.A., Joseph, S., & Noble, K.E. (1996). Is religiosity associated with life satisfaction? Psychological Reports, 79, 429–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lewis, C.A., Lanigan, C., Joseph, S., & Fockert, J. De (1997). Religiosity and happiness: No evidence for an association among undergraduates. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 119–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lewis, C.A., Maltby, J., & Burkinshaw, S. (2000). Religion and happiness: Still no association. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 21, 233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lucas, R.E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Luyten, P., Corveleyn, J., & Fontaine, J.R.J. (1998). The relationship between religiosity and mental health: Distinguishing between shame and guilt. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1, 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2000). Examining the relationship between religiosity and depression within the context of other correlates of depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 383–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Markides, K.S., Levin, J.S., & Ray, L.A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction: An eight-year, threewave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660–665.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Meier, A., & Edwards, H. (1974). Purpose in Life test: Age and sex differences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 384–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paloutzian, R.F. (1981). Purpose in life and value changes following conversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 1153–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pargament, K.I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C.G., & Wulff, D.M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders, and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Petersen, L.R., & Roy, A. (1985). Religiosity, anxiety, and meaning and purpose: Religion’s consequences for psychological well-being. Review of Religious Research, 27, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reker, G.T. (1977). The Purpose in Life test in an inmate population: An empirical investigation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 688 – 693.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Robbins, M., & Francis, L.J. (1996). Are religious people happier? A study among undergraduates. In L.J. Francis, W.K. Kay en W.S. Cambell (Eds.), Research in religious education(pp. 207–218). Leominster, UK: Gracewing.Google Scholar
  58. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (I 995). The structure of psychological wellbeing revisited. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soderstrom, D., & Wright, E.W. (1977). Religious orientation and meaning in life. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vandereycken, W., Hoogduin, C.A.L., & Emmelkamp, P. (1997) (Red.). Handboek Psychopathologie deel I, 2e herziene druk. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.Google Scholar
  61. Wulff, D.M. (1997). Religion and psychology: Classic and contemporary views. London, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1987). Relation of hassles and personality to subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.

Personalised recommendations