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Facteurs environnementaux dans la maladie de Crohn

Environmental factors in Crohn’s disease

Résumé

Le facteur d’environnement le mieux caractérisé dans la maladie de Crohn est le tabac, qui non seulement favorise le développement de la maladie, mais aussi en aggrave l’évolution. L’arrêt du tabac a un effet favorable sur l’évolution de la maladie et doit faire partie de la prise en charge thérapeutique au même titre que les traitements médicamenteux d’entretien.

La pilule œstroprogestative et l’appendicectomie n’ont pas d’effet démontré. Le rôle d’autres facteurs environnementaux reste hypothétique bien que les facteurs diététiques, qui sont les plus difficiles à étudier, puissent avoir aussi une importance.

Summary

The most important environmental factor recognized in Crohn’s disease is cigarette smoking. Smoking increases the risk of Crohn’s disease and worsens considerably the course of the disease. Conversely, smoking cessation is followed rapidly by reversal of the effect. Persuading patients to stop smoking is probably the most costeffective strategy for controlling disease activity. The contraceptive pill and appendectomy have no effect. The role of other environmental factors remains putative although dietary factors, which are the most difficult to study, may be important.

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Correspondence to J. Cosnes.

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Cosnes, J., Seksik, P. Facteurs environnementaux dans la maladie de Crohn. Acta Endosc 36, 679–688 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03018510

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Mots-clés

  • appendicectomie
  • maladie de Crohn
  • tabac

Key-words

  • appendectomy
  • Crohn’s disease
  • smoking