Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Comparison of cervical musculoskeletal kinematics in two different postures of primate during voluntary head tracking

Abstract

We have examined the effect on neck-muscle activation of altering whole body posture. A Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatto) was trained to produce sinusoidal (0.25 Hz) head tracking movements in the sagittal plane when seated with trunk and head vertical or while standing in the quadrupedal position. Video-fluoroscopic images of cervical vertebral motion, and electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded simultaneously. Results demonstrated that vertebral motion varied with body posture, occurring synchronously between all joints in the upright position and primarily at skull-Ci when in the quadrupedal position. Muscle EMG activation was significantly greater (p<0.00l) in the quadrupedal position than when upright for all muscles except semispinalis cervicis. Peak activation of all the muscles occurred prior to peak head extension in the quadrupedal position, suggesting synchronous activity between muscles. Data suggest that, when upright, muscles were activated in functional groupings defined by their anatomical arrangement. In the quadrupedal position, gravity acting on the horizontally oriented head produced greater activation and a collective response of the muscles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

C1 :

The 1st cervical vertebra

C2 :

The 2nd cervical vertebra

C3 :

The 3rd cervical vertebra

C4 :

The 4th cervical vertebra

C5 :

The 5th cervical vertebra

C6 :

The 6th cervical vertebra

C7 :

The 7th cervical vertebra

T1 :

The 1st thoracic vertebra

References

  1. Berthoz, A., Graf, W. and Vidal, P. P., 1991,The Head-Neck Sensory-Motor System, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 101–103.

  2. De Waele, C, Graf, W., Josset, P. and Vidal, P. P., 1989, “A radiological Analysis of the Postural Syndromes Following Hemilabyrinthectomy and Selective Canal and Otolith Lesions in the Guinea Pig,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 77, pp. 166–182.

  3. Dunbar, D. C, Horak, F. B., Macpherson, J. M. and Rushmer, D. S., 1986. “Neural Control of Quadrupedal and Bipedal Stance: Implications for the Evolution of Erect Posture,”American Journal of Physiological Anthropology, Vol. 69, pp. 93–105.

  4. Graf, W., De Waele, C. and Vidal, P. P., 1995, “Functional Anatomy of the Head-Neck Motor System of Quadrupedal and Bipedal Mammals,”Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 186, pp. 55–74.

  5. Keshner, E. A., Campbell, D., Katz, R. and Peterson, B. W., 1989, “Neck Muscle Activation Patterns in Humans During Isometric head Stabilization, ”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 75. pp. 335–344.

  6. Keshner, E. A., Baker, J. F., Banovetz, J., and Peterson, B. W., 1992. “Patterns of Neck Muscle Activation in Cats During Reflex and Voluntary head Movements,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 88, pp. 361–374.

  7. Keshner, E. A., 1994, “Vertebral Orientations and Muscle Activation Patterns During Controlled head Movements in Cats,”Experimental Brain Research. Vol. 98, pp. 546–550.

  8. Keshner, E. A., Statler, K. D. and Delp, S. L., 1997, “Kinematics of the Freely Moving head and Neck in the Alert Cat,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 115. pp. 257–266.

  9. Macpherson, J. M., Horak, F. B., Dunbar, D. C. and Dow, R. S., 1989, “Stance Dependence of Automatic Postural Adjustments in Humans,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 78, pp. 557–566.

  10. Richmond, F. J. R., Thomson, D. B. and Loeb, G. E., 1992, “Electromyographic Studies of Neck Muscles in the Intact Cat. I. Patterns of Recruitment Underlying Posture and Movement During Natural Behaviors,”Experimental Brain Research. Vol. 88. pp. 41–58.

  11. Runciman, R. J., Richmond, F. J. R., 1997. “Shoulder and Forelimb Orientations and Loading in Sitting Cats: Implications for head and Shoulder Movement,”Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 30, pp. 911–919.

  12. Thomson, D. B., Loeb, G. E. and Richmond, F. J. R., 1994, “Effect of Neck Posture on the Activation of Feline Neck Muscles During Voluntary head Turns,”Journal of Neurophvsiology, Vol. 72, pp. 2004–2014.

  13. Vidal, P. P., Graf, W. and Berthoz, A., 1986, “The Orientation of the Cervical Vertebral Column in Unrestrained Awake Animals. I. Resting Position,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 61, pp. 549–559.

  14. Wickland, C. R., Baker, J. F. and Peterson, B. W., 1991, “Torque Vectors of Neck Muscles in the Cat,”Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 84, pp. 649–659.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Hyeonki Choi or Emily Keshner or Barry W. Peterson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Choi, H., Keshner, E. & Peterson, B.W. Comparison of cervical musculoskeletal kinematics in two different postures of primate during voluntary head tracking. KSME International Journal 17, 1140–1147 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03016508

Download citation

Key Words

  • Neck Musculature
  • Cervical Kinematics
  • Different Postures
  • Primate
  • EMG
  • Video-fluoroscopy