Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Understanding and selecting monitoring equipment in anaesthesia and intensive care


“I think we both became very much more skillful in our jobs than we otherwise would have become, owing to this competition, but it was particularly due, I think, to the detailed attention which we had to put upon the patient by the careful recording of the pulse rate throughout the operation.” – Harvey Cushing, 1920


  1. 1

    Beecher HK. The first anaesthesia records (Cod-man, Cushing). Surg Gynecol Obstet 1940; 71:689–93.

  2. 2

    Crul J, Payne JP. Patient monitoring. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1970.

  3. 3

    Little W, Fowler HW, Coulson J. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Ed. Onions CT; 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1944.

  4. 4

    Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 25th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1974.

  5. 5

    Gravenstein JS. Is there minimal essential monitoring? Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation Newsletter, 1986; (March): 2-3.

  6. 6

    Lymon J, Fogel LJ. The Human Component. In: Grabbe EM (ed.), Handbook of Automation, Computation and Control. New York: Wiley, 1961.

  7. 7

    Benekn JEW, Blom JA, Jorritsma FF, Nandorff A, Speirdijk J. Prognosis, trend and trend prediction in patient management. J Biomed Eng 1979; 1:185–200.

  8. 8

    Hill DW, Dolan AM. Intensive Care Instrumentation. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press, 1982.

  9. 9

    Saidman LJ, Smith N Ty. Monitoring in Anesthesia. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978.

  10. 10

    Ownings CL. Measuring and Monitoring. In: Bartlett RH, Whitehouse WM, Turcotte JG (Eds.), Life Support Systems in Intensive Care. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1984.

  11. 11

    Carr JJ, Brown JM. Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.

  12. 12

    Scurr C, Feldman S. Scientific Foundations of Anaesthesia. 2nd ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1974.

  13. 13

    Gravenstein JS, Newbower RS, Ream AK, Smith NT. Essential Noninvasive Monitoring in Anesthesia. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1980.

  14. 14

    Hill DW. Electronic Measurement Techniques in Anaesthesia and Surgery. 2nd ed. London: Butterworths, 1973.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to C. E. Hope or D. L. Morrison.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hope, C.E., Morrison, D.L. Understanding and selecting monitoring equipment in anaesthesia and intensive care. Can Anaesth Soc J 33, 670–679 (1986).

Download citation


  • CANADIAN Anaesthetist
  • Monitoring Equipment
  • Patient Data Management System
  • Analogue Display
  • Signal Frequency Range