Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Influence of rain gauge integration time on the rain rate statistics used in microwave communications

L’influence du temps d’intégration du pluviomètre sur la distribution statistique de la pluie appliquée aux liaisons hertziennes

  • 88 Accesses


An investigation into the effect of the integration time T on the rain rate distribution P(R) is presented using a rainfall rate data bank of 49 years recorded at Barcelona (CCIR - Zone L), using a rapid response Jardi rain rate gauge. T extends from 1 to 60 min and P(R) extends to less than 10-3 %. The relation between the various T-distributions P(RT) is presented as well as the values of RT and R1 which give the same probability. The ratio RT/R1 and the potential expression R1 = aRb T are studied. Comparison with recent results from Canada confirms both the numerical value presented and the climatic dependence of the equi-probable ratio RT/R1.


On présente une étude de l’effet du temps d’intégration T sur la distribution statistique P(R) de l’intensité de précipitation utilisant des données obtenues pendant 49 ans à Barcelone (zone CCIR-L), à l’aide d’un pluviomètre d’intensité Jardí. T s’étend entre 1 et 60 min, et P(R) va jusqu’à moins de 10-3 %. On présente la relation entre les différentes distributions obtenues lorsque T varie, P(RT), ainsi que les valeurs de RT et R1 qui conduisent à la même probabilité. On étudie le rapport RT/R1 et l’expression potentielle R1 = aRb T. On compare les résultats pour RT/R1 avec ceux obtenus récemment pour le Canada, ce qui confirme les valeurs numériques du rapport RT/R1 aussi bien que sa dépendance climatologique.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. [1]

    Rice (P. L.), Holmberg (N. R.). Cumulative time statistics of surface point rainfall rates.IEEE Trans. COM, USA (1973),21, no 10, pp. 1131–1136.

  2. [2]

    Dutton (E. J.), Dougherty (H. T.), Martin (R. F.). Prediction of European rainfall and link performance coefficients at 8 to 30 GHz. AD/A-000804. U.S. National Technical Information Service, USA (1974).

  3. [3]

    Lin (S. H.). Rain rate distributions and extreme value statistics.BSTJ, USA (1976),55, no 8, pp. 1111–1124.

  4. [4]

    Crane (R.). Prediction of attenuation by rain.IEEE Trans. COM, USA (1980),28, no 9, pp. 1717–1733.

  5. [5]

    Watson (P. A.), Gunes (M. A.), Potter (B. A.), Sathiaseelan (V.), Leitao (J.). Development of a climatic map of rainfall attenuation for Europe. Report 327, Post Graduate School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Univ. Bradford, UK (1982).

  6. [6]

    Ajayi (G. O.), Ofoche (E. B. C.). Some tropical rainfall rate characteristics at Ile-Ife for microwave and millimetre wave applications.J. Climate Appl. Meteor., USA (1984),23, pp. 562–567.

  7. [7]

    Lin (S. H.). Empirical rain attenuation model for earthsatellite paths.IEEE Trans. COM, USA (1979),27, no 5, pp. 812–817.

  8. [8]

    *** ccir Report 563–3, Dubrovnik, 1986, p. 131.

  9. [9]

    Harden (B. N.), Norbury (J. R.), White (W. J. K.). Measurements of rainfall for studies of millimetric radio attenuation.Microw. Opt. Acoust., UK (1977),1, no 6, pp. 197–202.

  10. [10]

    Burgueño (A.), Austin (J.), Vilar (E.), Puigcerver (M.). Analysis of moderate and intense rainfall rates continuously recorded over half a century and influence on microwave communications planning and rain rate data acquisition.IEEE Trans. COM, USA (1987),35, no 4, pp. 382–395.

  11. [11]

    Lin (S. H.). Dependence of rain rate distributions on rain gauge integration time.BSTJ, USA (1976),55, no 1, pp. 135–141.

  12. [12]

    Fedi (F.). Rainfall characteristics across Europe.Alta Freq., Ital. (1979),XLVII, pp. 158–166.

  13. [13]

    Haikonen (T.). Conversion of rain intensity distributions to shorter or longer integration times.Sähkö-Electricity in Finland, Fin. (1978),51, no 4, pp. 129–133.

  14. [14]

    Segal (B.). The influence of rain gauge integration time on measured rainfall. Intensity distribution functions. Journ. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. (1986), 3, no 4.

  15. [15]

    Burgueño (A.), Vilar (E.), Puigcerver (M.). Long-term joint statistical analysis of duration and intensity of rainfall rate with application to microwave communications.Proc. 5th ICAP, York, UK (1987), no 2, pp. 98–201.

  16. [16]

    Vilar (E.), Burgueño (A.), Puigcerver (M.), Austin (J.). Analysis of the joint rainfall rate and duration statistics. Microwave system design implications.IEEE Trans. COM (1988),36, no 6, pp. 650–661.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Augusto Burgueño or Manuel Puigcerver or Enric Vilar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Burgueño, A., Puigcerver, M. & Vilar, E. Influence of rain gauge integration time on the rain rate statistics used in microwave communications. Ann. Télécommun. 43, 522–527 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03011107

Download citation

Key words

  • Precipitation gauge
  • Rainfall rate
  • Statistical distribution
  • Electromagnetic wave propagation

Mots clés

  • Pluviomètre
  • Intensité précipitation
  • Distribution statistique
  • Propagation onde électromagnétique