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Effets de l’halothane sur les gaz du sang et l’équilibre acido-basique artériels chez le rat intact et chez le rat chémodénervé

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Abstract

L’halothane diminue la réponse ventilatoire à l’hypoxie et l’activité des chémorécepteurs artériels périphériques, réalisant une «chémodénervation chimique». Afin d’évaluer le rôle de cette «chémodénervation chimique» dans les modifications de l’équilibre acido-basique et des gaz du sang artériel provoquées par l’halothane, ces paramètres ont été mesurés chez des rats intacts éveillés, puis anesthésiés, et chez des rats chémodénervés, éveillés puis anesthésiés. Le niveau de l’anesthésie pouvant être modifié par la chémodénervation anatomique, l’ED50 inspirée d’halothane a été mesurée chez six rats avant et après chémodénervation anatomique. D’éventuelles modifications hémodynamiques dues à l’halothane et /ou à la chémodénervation anatomique pouvant interférer avec les résultats, la pression artérielle systémique et la fréquence cardiaque ont été mesurées chez six rats intacts éveillés, puis anesthésiés, et chez les six mêmes rats chémodénervés, éveillés puis anesthésiés. Chez neuf rats intacts et chez 19 rats chémodénervés, le pH artériel, la concentration artérielle de bicarbonates, et les gaz du sang artériel (PaO2 et PaCO2) ont été mesurés avant et après administration d’halothane. La chémodénervation anatomique ne modifia ni l’ED50 inspirée (1,1%), ni la pression artérielle moyenne et la fréquence cardiaque. Les effets hémodynamiques de l’halothane furent comparables chez les rats intacts et chez les rats chémodénervés. Les modifications des gaz du sang et de l’équilibre acido-basique provoquees par l’halothane chez les rats intacts, et par la chémodénervation anatomique chez les rats éveillés, ne furent pas significativement différentes: diminution significative de PaO2 et de pHa, augmentation significative de PaCO2 Chez les rats chémodénervés, l’halothane provoqua une diminution supplémental de PaO2 et une augmentation supplémentaire de PaCO2. Le fait que l’halothane et que la chémodénervation anatomique modifient de la même manière les gaz du sang et l’équilibre acido-basique est en faveur de l’action «chémodénervatrice chimique» de l’halothane. Mais les effets additionnels de l’halothane chez l’animal chémodénervé anatomiquement confirment que les effets de l’halothane sur les gaz du sang et l’équilibre acido-basique résultent de multiples points d’impact sur le système respiratoire.

Abstract

Halothane decreases the ventilatory response to hypoxia and the activity of peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, resulting in “chemical chemodenervation.” In order to evaluate the role of this halothane-induced “chemical denervation” in acid-base and arterial blood gas changes, these values were measured in intact and chemodenervated rats, awake and under anaesthesia. Since the depth of anaesthesia could be modified by the anatomical chemodenervation, the ED50 of inspired halothane was determined in six rats before and after anatomical chemodenervation. To prevent haemodynamic changes due to halothane and/ or anatomical chemodenervation from interfering with the results, systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in six intact rats, awake and then anaesthetized, and in the same rats after chemodenervation, awake and then anaesthetized. In nine intact rats and in 19 chemodenervated rats, arterial pH, arterial bicarbonate concentration, and arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured before and after administration of halothane. Anatomical chemodenervation modified neither the inspired ED50 (1.1%), nor the mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate. The haemodynamic effects of halothane were comparable in intact and in chemodenervated rats. Changes in arterial blood gases and acid-base balance due to halothane in intact rats and due to chemodenervation in awake rats were not different, but there was a decrease in PaO2 and pHa, and an increase in PaCO2. In chemodenervated rats, halothane caused a further decrease in PaO2 and a further increase in PaCO2. The fact that halothane and anatomical chemodenervation have similar effects on arterial blood gases and acid-base balance favours a “chemical chemodenervating” action of halothane. However, the additional effects of halothane in the anatomically chemodenervated animal show that the action of halothane on blood gases and acid-base balance is the result of multiple sites of impact on the respiratory system.

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Correspondence to Jean-Henri Gaudy.

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Gaudy, J., Sicard, J., Maneglia, R. et al. Effets de l’halothane sur les gaz du sang et l’équilibre acido-basique artériels chez le rat intact et chez le rat chémodénervé. Can J Anaesth 40, 883 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03009263

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Key words

  • receptors: chemoreceptors, carotid sinus
  • anaesthetics, volatile: halothane