Kinney WW, Kambam JR, Wright W. Propranolol pretreatment reduces cardio-respiratory toxicity due to plain, but not epinephrine-containing, intravenous bupivacaine in rats. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38: 533–6.
Roth SH, Miller KW (Ed.). Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Anesthetics. New York: Phlenum Publishing Corp. 1986.
Starmer CF, Grant AO, Strauss HC. Mechanisms of usedependent block of sodium channels in excitable membranes by local anesthetics. Biophys J 1984; 46: 15–27.
Hille B. Local anesthetics: hydrophilic and hydrophobic pathways for the drug-receptor reaction. J Gen Physiol 1977; 69: 497–515.
About this article
Cite this article
Orser, B., MacDonald, J. Propranolol protection from bupivacaine toxicity. Can J Anaesth 39, 407 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03009066
- Channel Blockade
- Tube Thoracostomy