Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Doses of epinephrine causing arrhythmia during enflurane, methoxyflurane and halothane anaesthesia in dogs

Summary

The arrhythmogenic dosage of epinephrine, administered by constant intravenous infusion, was measured in five dogs during enflurane, methoxyflurane and halothane anaesthesia. While premature ventricular contractions were observed in only one of five dogs with enflurane and methoxyflurane, epinephrine-induced arrhythmias were seen in all animals during halothane anaesthesia. Epinephrine dosage and the resultant increase in mean arterial blood pressure at which arrhythmias occurred during halothane anaesthesia were significantly less (p < 0.05) than with the other anaesthetics. These observations indicate that enflurane and methoxyflurane, as compared to halothane, possess relatively less arrhythmogenic potential as sensitizing agents in the presence of increased circulating catecholamines.

Résumé

Chez cinq chiens, nous avons calculé la dose arythmogénique d’épinéphrine en perfusion intra-veineuse au cours de l’anesthésie à l’enflurane, au méthoxyflurane et à l’halothane. Alors que des extrasystoles ventriculaires furent observées chez un seul des cinq chiens sous enflurane et sous méthoxyflurane, l’épinéphrine a provoqué des arythmies chez tous les chiens soumis à l’halothane. La dose d’épinéphrine et l’augmentation subséquente de la T.A. moyenne ayant provoqué des arythmies furent significativement moins élevées (p < 0.5) avec l’halothane qu’avec les autres agents. Ces observations démontrent que l’enflurane et le méthoxyflurane, comparativement à l’halothane, possèdent relativement moins de pouvoir arythmogénique en présence de catécholamines circulantes élevées.

References

  1. 1.

    Tucker, W.K., Rackstein, A.D., &Munson, E.S. Comparison of arrhythmic doses of adrénaline, metaraminol, ephedrine and phenylephrine during isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia in dogs. Brit. J. Anaesth.46: 392 (1974).

  2. 2.

    Joas, T.A. &Stevens, W.C. Comparison of the arrhythmic doses of epinephrine during Forane, halothane and fluroxene anaesthesia in dogs. Anesthesiology35: 48 (1971).

  3. 3.

    Tham, M.K., Hardy, C.A., &Shah, D.O. Gas-chromatographic method using surfactants for analysis of volatile anaesthetics in blood. Anesthesiology37: 647 (1972).

  4. 4.

    Eger, E.I., II,Lundgren, C., Miller, S.L., &Stevens, W.C. Anaesthetic potencies of sulfur hexafluoride, carbon tetrafluoride, chloroform and Ethrane in dogs. Anesthesiology30: 129 (1969).

  5. 5.

    Eger, E.I., II,Brandstater, B., Saidman, L.J., Regan, M.J., Severinghaus, J.W., &Munson, E.S. Equipotent alveolar concentrations of méthoxyflurane, halothane, diethyl ether, fluroxene, cyclopropane, xenon and nitrous oxide in the dog. Anesthesiology26: 771 (1965).

  6. 6.

    Eger, E.I., II &Bahlman, S.H. Is the end-tidal anaesthetic partial pressure an accurate measure of the arterial anaesthetic partial pressure? Anesthesiology35: 301 (1971).

  7. 7.

    Fink, B.R. &Morikawa, K. A simplified method for the measurement of volatile anaesthetics in blood by gas chromatography. Anesthesiology32: 451 (1970).

  8. 8.

    Tucker, W.K. &Munson, E.S. Effects of succinylcholine and d-tubocurarine on epinephrine-induced arrhythmias during halothane anaesthesia in dogs. Anesthesiology42: 41 (1975).

  9. 9.

    Jacques, A. &Hudon, F. Effect of epinephrine on the human heart during méthoxyflurane anaesthesia. Can. Anaes. Soc. J.10: 53 (1963).

  10. 10.

    Bamforth, B.J., Siebecker, K.L., Kraemer, R., &Orth, O.S. Effect of epinephrine on the dog heart during méthoxyflurane anaesthesia. Anesthesiology22: 169 (1961).

  11. 11.

    McDowell, S.A., Hall, K.D., &Stephen, C.R. Difluoromethyl l,l,2-trifluoro-2-chloroethyl ether: experiments on dogs with a new inhalational anaesthetic agent. Brit. J. Anaesth.40: 511 (1968).

  12. 12.

    Virtue, R.W., Lund, L.O., Phelps, McK., Jr.,Vogel, J.H.K., Beckwitt, H., &Heron, M. Difluoromethyl l,l,2-trifluoro-2-chloroethyl ether as an anaesthetic agent. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J.13: 233 (1966).

  13. 13.

    Byles, P.H., Dobkin, A.B., Fercuson, J.H., &Levy, A.A. Forane (Compound 469): 2. Biochemical effects of repeated administration to animals, response to bleeding, and compatibility with epinephrine. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J.18: 387 (1971).

  14. 14.

    Zahed, B., Miletich, D.J., Ivankovich, A.D., Albrecht, R.F., Toyooka, E., &Massau, B. Comparison of the arrhythmic doses of epinephrine and dopamine during enflurane, fluroxene, halothane and methoxyflurane anaesthesia. Abstracts of Scientific Papers, 1974 Annual Meeting, American Society of Anesthesiologists, p. 55.

  15. 15.

    Crout, J.R. &Brown, B.R., Jr. Anesthetic management of pheochromocytoma: the value of phenoxybenzamine and methoxyflurane. Anesthesiology30: 29 (1969).

  16. 16.

    Johnston, R.R. &Eger, E.I., II. A comparative interaction of epinephrine with halothane, enflurane and isoflurane in man. Abstracts of Scientific Papers, 1974 Annual Meeting, American Society of Anesthesiologists, p. 55.

  17. 17.

    North, W.C., Knox, P.R., &Stephen, C.R. Cardiac arrhythmias with methoxyflurane. Excerpt Med. Internat. Congress Series #48, 22nd International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Leiden, 1962, p. 1204.

  18. 18.

    Katz, R.L. &Epstein, R.A. The interaction of anaesthetic agents and adrenergic drugs to produce cardiac arrhythmias. Anesthesiology29: 763 (1968).

  19. 19.

    Katz, R.L., Matteo, R.S., &Papper, E.M. The injection of epinephrine during general anaesthesia with halogenated hydrocarbons and cyclopropane in man. 2. Halothane. Anesthesiology23: 597 (1962).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Edwin S. Munson or William K. Tucker.

Additional information

This work was supported in part by USPHS Grant GM00427-12. The research described in this report involved animals maintained in animal care facilities fully accredited by the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Munson, E.S., Tucker, W.K. Doses of epinephrine causing arrhythmia during enflurane, methoxyflurane and halothane anaesthesia in dogs. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 22, 495–501 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03004865

Download citation

Keywords

  • Epinephrine
  • Halothane
  • Enflurane
  • Methoxyflurane
  • Premature Ventricular Contraction