Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Behavior analysis of cigarette smoking

  • 56 Accesses


Patterns of cigarette smoking, treated as series of discrete events in time, were investigated with a variety of quantitative techniques designed to characterize individual subject smoking series and to illuminate the relationship between cigarette smoking and environmental events. Data were collected from a total of 35 subjects who were either participants in residential laboratory studies or in a smoking cessation program. Cigarette smoking events were found to be fairly irregularly distributed with respect to time within individual subject series. However, strong dependencies were found between the occurrence in time of individual acts of cigarette smoking and coffee drinking. In addition, the distribution and frequency of smoking events throughout one-hour activity sequences were found to be dependent upon the nature of the activity, and the temporal scheduling of activities was found to affect several quantitative indices of smoking patterns.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bernstein, D. A. Modification of smoking behavior: An evaluative review.Psychological Bulletin, 1969,71, 418–440.

  2. Bernstein, D. A., and Glasgow, R. W. Smoking. In O. F. Pomerleau and J. P. Brady (Eds.),Behavioral Medicine: Theory and Practice. Baltimore: Williams & Williams, 1979, 233–253.

  3. Best, J. A., and Hakstian, A. R. A situation-specific model for smoking behavior.Addictive Behaviors, 1978,3, 79–92.

  4. Collins, F. L., Jr., and Epstein, L. H. Temporal analysis of cigarette smoking.Addictive Behaviors, 1978,3, 93–97.

  5. Dawber, T. R., Kannel, W. B., and Gordon, T. Coffee and cardiovascular disease: Observations from the Framingham study.The New England Journal of Medicine, 1974,291, 871–874.

  6. Emurian, H. H., Emurian, C. S., and Brady, J. V. Effects of a pairing contingency on behavior in a three-person programmed environment.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1978,29, 319–329.

  7. Emurian, H. H., Nellis, M. J., Brady, J. V., and Ray, R. L. Event time-series relationship between cigarette smoking and coffee drinking.Addictive Behaviors (in press).

  8. Epstein, L. H., and McCoy, J. F. Issues in smoking control.Addictive Behaviors, 1975,1, 65–72.

  9. Epstein, L. H., and Collins, F. L., Jr. The measurement of situational influences of smoking.Addictive Behaviors, 1977,2, 47–53.

  10. Frederiksen, L. W., and Frazier, M., Temporal distribution of smoking.Addictive Behaviors, 1977,2, 187–192.

  11. Glaser, E. M., and Ruchkin, D. S.Principles of Neurobiological Signal Analysis. New York: Academic Press, 1976.

  12. Henningfield, J. E., Yingling, J., Griffiths, R. R., and Pickens, R. An inexpensive portable device for measuring puffing behavior by cigarette smokers.Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 1980,12, 811–813.

  13. Herman, L. H. External and internal cues as determinants of the smoking behavior of light and heavy smokers.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974,1, 65–72.

  14. Ikard, F. F., Green, D. E., and Horn, D. A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affect.International Journal of the Addictions, 1969,4, 649–659.

  15. Klatsky, A. L., Friedman, G. D., and Siegelaub, A. B. Coffee drinking prior to acute myocardial infarction.Journal of the American Medical Association, 1973,226, 540–543.

  16. Koenig, K. P., and Masters, J. Experimental treatment of habitual smoking.Behavior Research and Therapy, 1965,3, 235–243.

  17. Marshall, W. R., Epstein, L. H., and Green, S. B. Coffee drinking and cigarette smoking: I. Coffee, caffeine and cigarette smoking behavior.Addictive Behaviors, 1980,5, 389–394.

  18. McKennell, A. C. Smoking motivation factors.British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1970,9, 8–22.

  19. Pechacek, T. F. Modification of smoking behavior. In N. A. Krasnegor (Ed.),The Behavioral Aspects of Smoking. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 26. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979, 127–188.

  20. Pomerleau, O. F. Behavioral factors in the establishment, maintenance, and cessation of smoking. In N. A. Krasnegor (Ed.),The Behavioral Aspects of Smoking. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 26. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1979, 47–67.

  21. Ray, R. L., Emurian, H. H., Brady, J. V., and Nellis, M. J. On the regularity of smoking.Addictive Behaviors (in press).

  22. Robinson, J. C., and Young, J. C. Temporal patterns in smoking rate and mouth-level nicotine exposure.Addictive Behaviors, 1980,5, 91–95.

  23. Russell, M. A. H., Peto, J., and Patel, U. A. The classification of smoking by factorial structure of motives.Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1974,A137 (Part 3), 313–333.

  24. Sayers, B. Inferring significance from biological signals. In M. Clynes and J. Milsum (Eds.),Biomedical Engineering Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970, 84–163.

  25. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service.Smoking and Health, A Report of the Surgeon General. DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066. Washington, D.C.: Supt. of Docs., U. S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Margaret J. Nellis.

Additional information

This research was supported by NIDA Grant R01 DA 02588-01.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nellis, M.J., Emurian, H.H., Brady, J.V. et al. Behavior analysis of cigarette smoking. Pav. J. Biol. Sci. 17, 140–149 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03001208

Download citation


  • Cigarette Smoking
  • Smoking Behavior
  • Addictive Behavior
  • Activity Schedule
  • Smoking Cessation Program