Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Clinical application of conditioning and other behavioral techniques: Conceptual and professional considerations

  • 40 Accesses

Abstract

It is only recently that conditioning and allied techniques have been applied on any large scale outside the laboratory. With the emergence of these procedures into the clinical world, in particular, a new class of problems present themselves. It is no longer sufficient to focus upon narrowly technical or theoretical problems; philosophies, social and practical issues must be taken into consideration and the new techniques evaluated conceptually and practically in direct comparison with their psychodynamic alternatives. Selected issues are presented and discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ayer, A. J.: Freedom and necessity. London, Polemic Prep, 1946.

  2. Bandura, A.: Psychotherapy as a learning process.Psychol. Bull.,58: 143–157, 1961.

  3. Berlyne, D. E.: Conflict, arousal and curiosity. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1960.

  4. Blandford, D. H., and Sampson, E. E.: Induction of prestige suggestion through classical conditioning.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,69: 332–337, 1964.

  5. Bookbinder, L. J.: Simple conditioning versus the dynamic approach to symptoms and symptom substitution: a reply to Yates.Psychol. Rep.,10: 71–77, 1962.

  6. Breger, L., and McGaugh, J. L.: Critique and reformulation of “learningtheory” approaches to psychotherapy and neurosis.Psychol. Bull.,63: 338–358, 1965.

  7. Bullock, D. H., and Brunt, M. Y., Jr.: The testability of psychiatric patients in an opérant conditioning situation.Psychol. Rec.,9: 165–170, 1959.

  8. Buss, A., and Durkee, Ann: Conditioning of hostile verbalizations in a situation resembling a clinical interview.J. Consult. Psychol.,222: 415–418, 1958.

  9. Cooper, J. E.: A study of behavior therapy in thirty psychiatric patients.Lancet, Feb.23, 411–418, 1963.

  10. Dollard, J., and Miller, N. E.: Personality and psychotherapy. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1950.

  11. Eysenck, H. J.: The concept of mind: a behavioristic approach.J. Psycholog. Res.,5: 1–11, 1961.

  12. Fenichel, O.: Psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York, W. W. Norton, 1945.

  13. Franks, C. M.: Some fundamental problems in conditioning.Acta Psychol.,14: 223–246, 1958.

  14. Franks, C. M.: Quelques reflexions sur 1’“inhibition” et le probleme d’un facteur general de conditionnement.L’Encéphale,52: 220–229, 1963.

  15. Franks, C. M.: (ed.) Conditioning techniques in clinical practice and research. New York, Springer, 1964a.

  16. Franks, C. M.: Individual differences in conditioning and associated techniques. In The conditioning therapies (eds. J. Wolpe, A. Salter, and L. J. Reyna), New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964b. pp. 149–165.

  17. Franks, C. M.: Behavior therapy, psychology and the psychiatrist: Contributions, evaluations and overview.Amer. J. Orthopsychiat.,35: 145–151, 1965.

  18. French, T. M.: Interrelations between psychoanalysts and the experimental work of Pavlov.Amer. J. Psychiat. 89: 1165–1203, 1933.

  19. Geer, J. H.: Phobia treated by reciprocal inhibition.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,69: 642–645, 1964.

  20. Grossberg, J. M.: Behavior therapy: a review. Technical Report No. 1. La Jolla, Calif., Western Behav. Sci. Inst., 1963.

  21. Hobbs, N.: Sources of gain in psychotherapy.Amer. Psychol.,17: 741–747, 1962.

  22. Klein, G. S., and Krech, D.: Cortical conductivity in the brain injured.J. Pers.,21: 118–148, 1952.

  23. Kubie, L. S.: Relation of the conditioned reflex to psychoanalytic technic.Arch. Neurol. Psychiat.,32: 1137–1142, 1934.

  24. Lang, P. J.: Experimental studies of desensitization psychotherapy. In The conditioning therapies (eds. J. Wolpe, A. Salter, L. J. Reyna). New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964. pp. 38–53.

  25. Lashley, K. S.: Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Chicago, Chicago Univ. Press, 1929.

  26. London, P.: The modes and morals of psychotherapy. New York, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1965.

  27. Lovibond, S. H.: The mechanism of conditioning treatment of enuresis.Behav. Res. Ther.,1: 17–21, 1963a.

  28. Lovibond, S. H.: Intermittent reinforcement in behavior therapy.Behav. Res. Ther.,1: 127–132, 1963b.

  29. Martin, I.: A note on reflex sensitivity and formation of conditioned responses.Behav. Res. Ther.,1: 185–190, 1963a.

  30. Martin, I.: Eyelid conditioning and concomitant GSR activity.Behav. Res. Ther.,1: 255–265, 1963b.

  31. McConaghy, N.: A year’s experience with non-verbal psychotherapy.Med. J. Australia,1: 831–837, 1964.

  32. Moos, R.: The retention and generalization of opérant conditioning effects in an interview situation.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,66: 52–58, 1963.

  33. Moos, R., and Edwards, A. E.: Conflict vs. conditioning: effects upon peripheral vascular activity.Psychosom. Med.,26: 267–273, 1964.

  34. Mourer, O. H.: Freudianism, behaviour therapy and “self-disclosure.”Behav. Res. Ther.,1: 321–337, 1964.

  35. Murray, E. J.: Learning theory and psychotherapy: biotropic versus sociotropic approaches.J. Counsel. Psychol.,10: 250–255, 1963.

  36. Platonov, K.: The word as a physiological and therapeutic factor: the theory and practice of psychotherapy according to I. P. Pavlov. (transl. D. A. Myshne). Moscow, For. Lang. Publ. House, 1959.

  37. Quay, H.: The effect of verbal reinforcement on the recall of early memories.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,59: 254–257, 1959.

  38. Ross, A. O.: Deviant case analysis: neglected approach to behavior research. Percept. Mot. Skills,16: 337–340, 1963.

  39. Ross, A. O.: Learning theory and therapy with children.Psychotherap. Th. Res. Pract.,1: 102–108, 1964.

  40. Rosenthal, R.: The effect of experimenter outcome-bias and subject set on awareness in verbal conditioning experiments.J. Verb. Learn. Verb. Behav. 2: 275–283, 1963.

  41. Ruck, F.: Alkoholentziehungskur mit Hilfe eines bedingten Reflexes (apomorphinentziehungskur).Psychiat. Neurol. med. Psychol. (Lpz.)8: 88–92, 1956.

  42. Salter, A.: Conditioned reflex therapy. New York, Creative Age Press, 1950.

  43. Salzinger, K., and Pisoni, Stephanie: Reinforcement of effect responses of schizophrenics during the clinical interview.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,57: 84–90, 1958.

  44. Schilder, P.: Conditioned reflexes.Arch. Neurol. Psychiat.,22: 425–443, 1929.

  45. Shapiro, M. B.: An approach to the social responsibilities of the clinical psychologist.Bull. Brit. Psychol. Soc. 18: 31–36, 1965.

  46. Shoben, E. J.: The therapeutic object: men or machines.J. Counsel. Psychol.,10: 264–268, 1963.

  47. Staats, A. W., and Staats, Carolyn K.: Attitudes established by classical conditioning.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,57: 37–40, 1958.

  48. Stewart, M. A., Stern, J. A., Winokur, G., and Fredman, S.: An analysis of GSR conditioning.Psychol. Rev. 68: 60–70, 1961.

  49. Stewart, M. A., and Winokur, G.: Ethical issues in learning theory psychotherapy. Paper delivered at the 70th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, St. Louis, Sept., 1962.

  50. Voegtlin, W. L., Lemere, F., Broz, W. R., and O’Hallaren, P.: Conditioned reflex treatment of alcoholism. IV. A preliminary report on the value of reinforcement.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol.,2: 505–511, 1941.

  51. Weinberg, N. H., and Zaslove, M.: “Resistance” to systematic desensitization of phobias.J. Clin. Psychol.,19: 179–181, 1963.

  52. Wertheimer, M.: Figurai aftereffects as a measure of metabolic efficiency.J. Pers,24: 56–73, 1955.

  53. Wilde, G. J. S.: Behaviour therapy for addicted cigarette smokers: a preliminary investigation.Behav. Res. Ther.,2: 107–109, 1963.

  54. Williams, C. D.: The elimination of tantrum behavior by extinction procedures.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.,59: 269, 1959.

  55. Wolpe, J.: Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, Stanford Univ. Press, 1958.

  56. Wolpe, J.: Isolation of a conditioning procedure as the crucial psychotherapeutic factor.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.,134: 316–329, 1962.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Cyril M. Franks.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Franks, C.M. Clinical application of conditioning and other behavioral techniques: Conceptual and professional considerations. Conditional Reflex 1, 36–50 (1966). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03001084

Download citation

Keywords

  • Behavior Therapist
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Reciprocal Inhibition
  • Figural Aftereffect