Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The sensory nature of reward in instrumental behavior

Abstract

Improvement in the sensory state, or “better-being,” achieved either through obtaining desirable sensations or through escaping undesirable sensations, is considered the essential value which maintains the instrumental behavior. This value may vary depending on such factors as the intensity of the stimulus producing sensations, the effects of its previous occurrence, and the changes in the internal and external environment. Methods of evaluation of sensory “better-being” by means of measuring instrumental, autonomic and EEG responses are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Asratyan, E. A.: Some peculiarities of formation, functioning and inhibition of conditioned reflexes with two-way connections.Progr. Brain Res.,22: 8–29, 1967.

  2. Barnes, G. W., and Kish, G. B.: Reinforcing properties of the onset of auditory stimulation.J. Exp. Psychol.,62:164–170, 1961.

  3. Bartoshuk, L. M., Harned, M. A., and Parks, L. H.: Taste of water in the cat: Effects on sucrose preference.Science,171:699–701, 1971.

  4. Baenninger, R., and Mattleman, R. A.: Visual reinforcement: Opérant acquisition in the presence of a free mirror.Animal Learn. Beh.,1:302–306, 1973.

  5. Berlyne, D. E.: The reward-value of indifferent stimulation.In J. T. Tapp (Ed.):Reinforcement and Behavior. New York, Academic Press, 1969. Pp. 178–214.

  6. Berlyne, D. E., and Koenig, I. D. V.: Some possible parameters of photic reinforcement.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,60:276–280, 1965.

  7. Berlyne, D. E., Koenig, I. D. V., and Hirota, T.: Novelty, arousal and the reinforcement of diversive exploration in the rat.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,62:222–226, 1966.

  8. Bolles, R. C.: Reinforcement, expectancy and learning.Psychol. Rev.,79: 394–409, 1972.

  9. Booth, D. A.: Taste reactivity in starved, ready to eat and recently fed rats.Physiol. Behavior,8:901–908, 1972.

  10. Bregadze, A. N.: (1953). Cit. by Soltysik, S., 1960.

  11. Buchwald, N. A., Horvath, F. E., Wyers, E. J., and Wakefield, C.: Electroencephalographic rhythms correlated with milk reinforcement in cats.Nature (Lond.),201:830–831, 1964.

  12. Butler, R. A.: Discrimination learning by Rhesus monkeys to visual exploration motivation.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,46:95–98, 1953.

  13. Butler, R. A.: The effect of deprivation of visual incentives on visual exploration motivation in monkeys.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,50:177–179, 1957.

  14. Cabanac, M., Minaire, Y., and Actair, E. R.: Influence of internal factors on the pleasantness of a gustative sweet sensation.Communs. Behav. Biol., Part A.,1:77–82, 1968.

  15. Cabanac, M.: Physiological role of pleasure.Science,173:1103–1107, 1971.

  16. Campbell, H. J.: Peripheral self-stimulation as a reward in fish, reptile and mammal.Physiol. Behavior,8:637–640, 1972.

  17. Carpenter, J. A.: A comparison of stimulus-presentation procedures in taste preference experiments.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,51:561–564, 1958.

  18. Clemente, C. D., Sterman, M. B., and Wyrwicka, W.: Post-reinforcement EEG synchronization during alimentary behavior.Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol.,16:355–365, 1964.

  19. Collier, H. O. J.: The experimental analysis of drug dependence.Endeavour,31:123–129, 1972.

  20. Corbit, J. D., and Stellar, E.: Palatability, food intake and obesity in normal and hyperphagic rats.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,58:63–67, 1964.

  21. Delgado, J. M. R., Roberts, W. W., and Miller, N. E.: Learning motivated by electrical stimulation of the brain.Am. J. Physiol.,179:587–593, 1954.

  22. Deutsch, J. A.: Behavioral measurement of the neural refractory period and its application to intracranial self-stimulation.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,58:1–9, 1964.

  23. Dostalek, C., and Dostalkova, J.: To the associative character of backward conditioning.Act. Nerv. Superior,6:69–70, 1964.

  24. Ernitz, T., and Corbit, J. D.: Taste as a dipsogenic stimulus.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,83:27–31, 1973.

  25. Ferster, C. B., and Skinner, B. F.: Schedules of Reinforcement. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.

  26. Fonberg, E.: The manifestation of the defensive reactions in neurotic states.Acta Biol. Exp.,18:89–116, 1958.

  27. Fonberg, E.: On some peculiarities of defensive conditioned reflexes, type II.In E. A. Asratyan (Ed.): Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Motor Activity in Animals. Collected lectures of an International Symposium, Poland 1958. Moscow, Acad. Nauk SSSR, 1960. Pg. 124–134.

  28. Fonberg, E.: The role of the hypothalamus and amygdala in food intake, alimentary motivation and emotional reactions.Acta Biol. Exp.,29: 335–358, 1969.

  29. Fox, S. S.: Self-maintained sensory input and sensory deprivation in monkeys.J. Comp. Physiol Psychol.,55:438–444, 1962.

  30. Frey, R.B.: Cit. by Kish, 1966.

  31. Gantt, W. H.: Experimental Basis for Neurotic Behavior. New York, Hoeber, 1944.

  32. Gantt, W. H.: Cardiovascular component of the conditioned reflex to pain, food and other stimuli.Physiol. Rev., 40, suppl.4:266–291, 1960.

  33. Gallistel, C. R.: Motivating effects in self-stimulation.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 62:95–101, 1966.

  34. Gallistel, C. R.: Self-stimulation: The neurophysiology of reward and motivation.In J. A. Deutsch (Ed.): The Physiological Basis of Memory. New York, Academic Press, 1969; Pp. 175–267.

  35. Garcia, J., Ervin, F. R., and Koelling, R. A.: Learning with prolonged delay of reinforcement.Psychonom. Sci.,5:121–122, 1966.

  36. Gengerelli, J. A.: Studies in the neurophysiology of learning: VIII. Oscillatory potentials resulting from cerebral self-stimulation in rats.J. Psychol. 84:291–316, 1973.

  37. Girdner, J. B.: An experimental analysis of the behavioral effects of a perceptual consequence unrelated to organic drive states.Am. Psychol. 8:345–355, 1953.

  38. Groves, P. M., and Thompson, R. F.: Habituation: a dual-process theory.Psychol. Rev. 77:419–450, 1970.

  39. Hammer, L. N.: Relationship of reinforcement value to consummatory behavior.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 66:667–672, 1968.

  40. Hernandez-Peon, R.: Neurophysiological correlates of habituation and other manifestations of plastic inhibition.Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. No. 13:101-114, 1960.

  41. Hill, W. F.: Activity as an autonomous drive.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,49:15–19, 1956.

  42. Hoebel, B. G., and Teitelbaum, P.: Hypothalamic control of feeding and selfstimulation.Science,135:375–377, 1962.

  43. Hutt, P. J.: Rate of bar pressing as a function of quality and quantity of food reward.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47:235–239, 1954.

  44. Kagan, J., and Berkun, M.: The reward value of running activity.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47:108, 1954.

  45. Kennedy, J. M., and Baldwin, B. A.: Taste preferences in pigs for nutritive and non-nutritive sweet solutions.Animal Behavior,20:706–718, 1972.

  46. Kimble, G. A.: Hilgard and Marquis’ Conditioning and Learning. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1961.

  47. Kish, G. B.: Learning when the onset of illumination is used as reinforcing stimulus.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 48:261–264, 1955.

  48. Kish, G. B.: Studies of sensory reinforcement.In W. K. Honig: Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966; Pp. 109–159.

  49. Kish, G. B., and Barnes, G. W.: Reinforcing effects of manipulation in mice.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 54:713–715, 1961.

  50. Kon, S. K.: The self-selection of food constituents by the rat.Biochem, J. 25:473–481, 1931.

  51. Konorski, J.: Conditioned Reflexes and Neuron Organization. London, Cambridge University Press, 1948.

  52. Konorski, J.: Integrative Activity of the Brain. An Interdisciplinary Approach. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1967.

  53. Liddell, H. S., James W. T., and Anderson, O. D.: The comparative physiology of the conditioned motor reflex based on experiments with pig, dog, sheep, goat and rabbit.Comp. Psychol. Monogr.,11, No. 1, 1834.

  54. Livingston, R. B.: Reinforcement.In G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk and F. O. Schmitt:The Neurosciences. A Study Program. New York, Rockefeller University Press, 1967. Pp. 568–577.

  55. Long, C. J., and Stein, G. W.: An analysis of the reinforcing properties of food odors.Can. J. Pyschol.,23:212–218, 1969.

  56. Long, C. J., and Tapp, J. T.: Reinforcing properties of odors for the albino rat.Psychonom. Sci.,7:17–18, 1967.

  57. Marczynski, T. J., Rosen, A. J., and Hackett, J. T.: Post-reinforcement electrocortical synchronization and facilitation of cortical auditory evoked potentials in appetitive instrumental conditioning.Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.,24:227–241, 1968.

  58. Marczynski, T. J., York, J. L., and Hackett, J. T.: Steady potential correlates of positive reinforcement: “Reward Contingent Positive Variation.”Science,163:301–304, 1969.

  59. Margules, D. L., and Olds, J.: Identical “feeding” and “rewarding” systems in the lateral hypothalamus of rats.Science,135:374–375, 1962.

  60. Marx, M. H., Henderson, R. L., and Roberts, C. L.: Positive reinforcement of the bar pressing response by a light stimulus following dark operant pretests with no aftereffect.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,48:73–76, 1955.

  61. Masserman, J. H., and Yum, K. S.: An analysis of the influence of alcohol on experimental neurosis in cats.Psychosom. Med.,8:36–52, 1946.

  62. Miller, N. E.: Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear-reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses.J. Exp. Psychol.,38:89–101, 1948.

  63. Miller, N. E.: Effects of drugs on motivation: the value of using a variety of measures.Ann. New York Acad. Sci.,65:318–333, 1956.

  64. Miller, S., and Konorski, J.: Sur une forme particuliere des reflexes conditionnels.C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris),99:1155–1158, 1928.

  65. Moore, J. W., and Gormezano, I.: Yoked comparisons of instrumental and classical eyelid conditioning.J. Exp. Psychol.,62:552–559, 1961.

  66. Morrell, F.: Electrical signs of sensory coding.In G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk and F. O. Schmitt: The Neurosciences. A Study Program. New York, Rockefeller University Press, 1967; Pp. 452–467.

  67. Mowrer, O. H.: Anxiety-reduction and learning.J. Exp. Psychol.,27:497–516, 1940.

  68. Mowrer, O. H.: Learning Theory and Behavior. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1960.

  69. Olds, J.: Effects of hunger and male sex hormones on self-stimulation of the brain.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,51:320–324, 1953.

  70. Olds, J.: Approach-avoidance dissociations in the rat brain.Am. J. Physiol.,199:965–968, 1960.

  71. Olds, J., and Milner, P.: Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,47:419–427, 1954.

  72. Olds, J., and Olds, M. E.: Drives, rewards and the brain.In T. M. Newcombe (Ed.): New Directions in Psychology II. New York, Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1965.

  73. Olds, M. E., and Olds, J.: Approach-avoidance analysis of rat diencephalon.J. Comp. Neurol.,120:259–295, 1963.

  74. Pavlov, I. P.: Conditioned Reflexes. Transl. by G. V. Anrep. London, Oxford University Press, 1927.

  75. Perkins, C. C.: An analysis of the concept of reinforcement.Psychol. Rev.,75:155–172, 1968.

  76. Pfaffmann, C.: The pleasures of sensation.Psychol. Rev.,67:253–268, 1960.

  77. Pfaffmann, C.: Taste preference and reinforcement.In J. T. Tapp (Ed.): Reinforcement and Behavior. New York, Academic Press, 1969: Pp. 215–241.

  78. Premack, D.: Reinforcement Theory.Nebraska Symposium on Motivation,13:123–180, 1965.

  79. Reynolds, R. W.: The relationship between stimulation voltage and rate of hypothalamic self-stimulation in the rat.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,51: 193–198, 1958.

  80. Roberts, W. W.: Both rewarding and punishing effects from stimulation of posterior hypothalamus of cat with same electrode at same intensity.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,51:400–407, 1958.

  81. Rzoska, J.: Bait shyness, a study in rat behaviour.Br. J. Anim. Behav.,1: 128–135, 1953.

  82. Schoenfeld, W. N. (Ed.): The Theory of Reinforcement Schedules. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.

  83. Scott, E. M.: Self-selection of diet. I. Selection of purified components.J. Nutrition,31:397–406, 1946.

  84. Sharpless, S., and Jasper, H.: Habituation of the arousal reaction.Brain,79:655–680, 1956.

  85. Skinner, B. F.: The Behavior of Organisms; an Experimental Analysis. New York, Appleton-Century, 1938.

  86. Solomon, R. L., and Wynne, L. C.: Traumatic avoidance learning: The principles of anxiety conservation and partial irreversibility.Psychol. Rev.,61:353–385, 1954.

  87. Soltysik, S.: Studies on the avoidance conditioning. II. Differentiation and extinction of avoidance reflexes.Acta Biol. Exp.,20:171–182, 1960.

  88. Soltysik, S., and Kowalska, M.: Studies on the avoidance conditioning. I. Relations between cardiac (type I) and motor (type II) effects in the avoidance reflex.Acta Biol. Exp.,20:157–170, 1960.

  89. Spelman, J. W.: Heroin addiction: the epidemic of the 70’s.Arch. Envir. Health,21:589–590, 1970.

  90. Spencer, H.: The Principles of Psychology. New York, Appleton, 1870.

  91. Tapp, J. T.: Activity, reactivity and the behavior-directing properties of stimuli.In J. T. Tapp (Ed.): Reinforcement and Behavior. New York, Academic Press, 1969.

  92. Tapp, J. T., Mathewson, D. M., and Simpson, L. L.: Effects of hunger and thirst on reinforcing properties of light onset and light offset.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,66:784–787, 1968.

  93. Thorndike, E. L.: Animal Intelligence. Darien, Conn., Hafner Publ. Co., 1911.

  94. Walker, E. L.: Reinforcement—“The One Ring.”In J. T. Tapp (Ed.): Reinforcement and Behavior. New York, Academic Press, 1969; Pp. 47–62.

  95. Wenzel, B.: Tactile stimulation as reinforcement for cats and its relation to early feeding experience.Psychol. Rep.,5:297–300, 1959.

  96. Wetzel, M. C.: Self-stimulation aftereffects and runway performance in the rat.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,56:673–678, 1963.

  97. Wetzel, M. C.: New evidence concerning refractory period in self-stimulation neurons.Physiol. Behavior,8:397–402, 1972.

  98. Woodworth, R. S.: Experimental Psychology. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winslow, 1938.

  99. Wood-Gush, D. G. M., and Gower, D. M.: Studies on motivation in the feeding behavior of the domestic cock.Anim. Behavior,16:101–107, 1968.

  100. Wyrwicka, W.: The effect of the diminished alimentary excitability upon conditioned reflexes of the second type.Acta Biol. Exp.,15:205–214, 1950.

  101. Wyrwicka, W.: The Mechanisms of Conditioned Behavior. Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, 1972.

  102. Wyrwicka, W.: The organization of classical and instrumental conditional reactions.Cond. Reflex,8:28–40, 1973.

  103. Wyrwicka, W.: Eating banana in cats for brain stimulation reward.Physiol. Behavior,12:1063–1066, 1974.

  104. Wyrwicka, W., and Chase, M. H.: Eating as an instrumental reaction rewarded by electrical stimulation of the brain.Physiol. Behavior,9: 717–720, 1972.

  105. Wyrwicka, W., and Clemente, C. D.: Acceptance of high concentration saccharin solutions by cats after hypothalamic lesions.Exper. Neurol.,40: 367–376, 1973.

  106. Wyrwicka, W., and Dobrzecka, C.: On the transfer of defensive conditioned reaction established to the electrical stimulation of the diencephalon in goats.Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Cl. II,9:51–56, 1961.

  107. Young, P. T.: Palatability: the hedonic response to foodstuffs.In C. F. Code (Ed.): Handbook of Physiology, Section 6, Vol. I. Washington, D. C., Amer. Physiol. Society., 1967; Pp. 353–366.

  108. Zeigler, H. P., Green, H. L., and Lehrer, R.: Patterns of feeding behavior in the pigeon.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.,76:468–477, 1971.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Wanda Wyrwicka.

Additional information

Supported by USPHS Grant No. MH 13958.

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03001152.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wyrwicka, W. The sensory nature of reward in instrumental behavior. Pav. J. Biol. Sci. 10, 23–51 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03000621

Download citation

Keywords

  • Conditional Stimulus
  • Avoidance Response
  • Sensory State
  • Lateral Hypothalamus
  • Aversive Stimulus