Existing models of physiologic and behavioral function and the nervous control of these events may bear reexamination on the basis of evidence for a process of differentiation in transduction processes. Biological differentiation provides a basic and intrinsic mechanism through which single neural, receptor, and effector mechanisms can modify the nature of their responses.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bard, P.: Anatomical organization of the central nervous system in relation to control of the heart and blood vessels.Physiol. Rev. 40, suppl. 4: 3–26, 1960.
Burton, A. C.:Physiology and Biophysics of the Circulation. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1965.
Curtis, D. R., and Eccles, J. C.: Synaptic action during and after repetitive stimulation.J. Physiol. 150: 374–398, 1960.
Delgado, J. M. R.: Circulatory effects of cortical stimulation.Physiol. Rev. 40, suppl. 4: 146–178, 1960.
Eccles, J. C.:The Physiology of Synapses. New York, Academic Press, 1964.
Eccles, J. C.:The Physiology of Nerve Cells. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.
Granit, R.:Receptors and Sensory Perception. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1955.
Grundfest, H.: Synaptic and ephaptic transmission.In J. Field,et al. (eds.):Handbook of Physiology: Neurophysiology, Vol. I. Washington, D. C., American Physiological Society, 1960.
Hartline, H. K.: Visual receptors and retinal interaction.Science,164: 270–278, 1969.
Hartline, H. R., Ratliff, F., and Miller, W. H.: Inhibitory interaction in the retina and its significance in vision.In E. Florey (ed.):Nervous Inhibition. New York, Pergamon Press, 1961.
Katz, B.: Depolarization of sensory terminals and the initiation of impulses in the muscle spindle.J. Physiol. (London)3: 261–282, 1950.
Koshtoyants, Kh. S.:Essays on the History of Physiology in Russia. Washington, D. C., American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1964.
Lindblom, V.: The relation between stimulus and discharge in a rapidly adapting touch receptor.Acta Physiol. Scand. 56: 349–361, 1962.
Lindblom, V.: Phasic and static excitability of touch receptors in toad skin.Acta Physiol. Scand. 59: 410–423, 1963.
Ottoson, D., and Shepherd, G. M.: Receptor potentials and impulse generation in the isolated spindle during controlled extension.In Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 30. New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1965.
Ottoson, D., McReynolds, J. S., and Shepherd, G. M.: Sensitivity of isolated frog muscle spindle during and after stretching.J. Neurophysiol. 32: 24–34, 1969.
Pavlov, I. P.:Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes. W. H. Gantt (trans.), New York, International Publishers, 1928.
Purple, R. L., and Dodge, F. A.: Self-inhibition in the eye ofLimulus.In C. G. Bernhard (ed.):The Functional Organization of the Compound Eye. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1966.
Roberts, T. D. M.:Neurophysiology of Postural Mechanisms. New York, Plenum Press, 1967.
Shepherd, G. M., and Ottoson, D.: Response of the isolated muscle spindle to different rates of stretching.In Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 30. New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1965.
Stevens, C. F.:Neurophysiology: A primer. New York, John Wiley, 1966.
Thurm, U.: Discussion.In Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 30. New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1965.
About this article
Cite this article
Germana, J. Biological differentiation. Conditional Reflex 5, 119–125 (1970). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03000151
- Muscle Spindle
- Receptor Potential
- Nervous Control
- Impulse Frequency
- Biological Differentiation