Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The ram (OVIS, O), an animal model for temporal bone dissection training


Dissection of temportal bone is essential for training in otology. Human temporal bones, if for different reasons are not available, an animal model like Ram Head may be used for surgical dissection training of the temporal bones. In Ram model the entire head is used as head of removing the temporal bone. Ram Head is advantageous for its easy access and anatomical similarity with human temporal bones.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.


  1. 1.

    Paparella, M. M., Lamey, S. H. F. (1980): Histology and Pathology of the ear (including temporal bone removal for dissections). In: M. M. Paparella, Schumrick, D. A. (ed.)Otolaryngology, Vol.1. 1, W.D. Saunders Company,Philadelphia.

  2. 2.

    Saunders, W.H., Paparella, M.M. (1968): Atlas of ear surgery. The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis.

  3. 3.

    Schuhknecht, H. (1968): Temporal bone removal at autopsy.Arch. Otolaryngol.,87: 33–41.

  4. 4.

    Swartz, J.D. (1983): High resolution computered tomography of the middle ear and mastoid. Part I: Normal anatomy including normal variations.Radiology 148: 449–454.

  5. 5.

    Swartz, J. D. (1986): Imaging of the temporal bone. G. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart,New York.

  6. 6.

    Valvassori, G.E. (1980): Radiography of the temporal bone. In: Paparella and Schumrick:Otolaryngology, Chapter 42, W. B. Saunders,Philadelphia.

  7. 7.

    Wolf, D., Belucci, R. J., Eggston, A.A. (1957): Microscopic anatomy of the temporal bone. The Williams and Witkins Company,Baltimore.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to D. Hoehmann.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hoehmann, D., Helms, J. The ram (OVIS, O), an animal model for temporal bone dissection training. Indian J Otolaryngol 43, 172–174 (1991).

Download citation


  • Facial Nerve
  • Temporal Bone
  • Oval Window
  • Facial Nerve Canal
  • Horizontal Portion