Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Polyclonal activators in pulmonary immune disease

  • 17 Accesses

  • 5 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Mayer MM: Complement. Historical perspectives and some current issues. Complement 1:2–26, 1984

  2. 2.

    Schorlemmer HU, Edwards JH, Allison AC: Macrophage responses to mouldy hay dust,Micropolyspora faeni and zymosan, activators of complement by the alternative pathway. Clin Exp Immunol 27:198–207, 1977

  3. 3.

    Smith SM, Burrell R, Snyder IS: Complement activation by cell wall fractions ofMicropolyspora faeni. Infect Immun 22:568–574, 1978

  4. 4.

    Trowell OA: The lymphocyte. Int Rev Cytol 7:235–293, 1958

  5. 5.

    Nowell PC: Phytohemagglutinin: An initiator of mitosis in cultures of normal human leukocytes. Cancer Res 20:462–466, 1960

  6. 6.

    Inbar M, Ben-Bassat H, Sachs L: Temperature-sensitive activity on the surface membrane in the activation of lymphocytes by lectins. Exp Cell Res 76:143–151, 1973

  7. 7.

    Oppenheim JJ, Rosenstreich DL: Signals regulating in vitro activation of lymphocytes. Progr Allergy 20:65–194, 1976

  8. 8.

    Wedner HJ, Parker CW: Lymphocyte activation. Progr Allerg 20:195–300, 1976

  9. 9.

    Rosenstreich DL, Farrar JJ, Dougherty S: Absolute macrophage dependency of T-lymphocyte activation by mitogens. J Immunol 116:131–139, 1976

  10. 10.

    Wahl SM, Wilton JM, Rosenstreich DL, Oppenheim JJ: The role of macrophages in the production of lymphokines by T and B lymphocytes. J Immunol 114:1296–1301, 1975

  11. 11.

    Smith JD, Liu AY: Lectins mimic insulin in the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase. Science 214:799–800, 1981

  12. 12.

    Shier WT, Trotter JT, Reading CL: Inflammation induced by concanavalin A and other lectins. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 146:590–593, 1974

  13. 13.

    Greaves MF, Bauminger S: Activation of T and B lymphocytes by insoluble phytomitogens. Nature (New Biol) 235:67–72, 1972

  14. 14.

    Andersson J, Edelman GM, Moller G, Sjoberg O: Activation of B lymphocytes by locally concentrated Concanavalin A. Eur J Immunol 2:233–235, 1972

  15. 15.

    Janossy G, Greaves MF: Lymphocyte activation. I. Response of T and B lymphocytes to phytomitogens. Clin Med Immunol 9:483–498, 1971

  16. 16.

    Peavy DL, Adler WH, Smith RT: The mitogenic effects of endotoxin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B on mouse spleen cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. J Immunol 105:1453–1458, 1970

  17. 17.

    Morrison DC, Ulevitch RJ: The effects of bacterial endotoxins on host mediation systems. Am J Pathol 93:527–617, 1978

  18. 18.

    Sakane T, Green I: Protein A fromStaphylococcus aureus—A mitogen for human T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes but not L-lymphocytes. J Immunol 120:302–311, 1978

  19. 19.

    Burckhardt JJ, Guggenheim B, Hefti A: AreActinomyces viscosus antigens B-cell mitogens? J Immunol 118:1460–1465, 1977

  20. 20.

    Engel D, Clagett J, Page R, Williams B: Mitogenic activity ofActinomyces viscosus. I. Effects on murine B and T lymphocytes, and partial characterization. J Immunol 118:1466–1471, 1977

  21. 21.

    Damais C, Bona C, Chedid L, Fleck J. Nauciel E, Martin JP: Mitogenic effect of bacterial peptidogylcans possessing adjuvant activity. J Immunol 115:268–271, 1975

  22. 22.

    Ciorbaru R, Adam A, Petit J, Lederer E, Bona C, Chedid L: Isolation of mitogenic and adjuvant active fractions from various species of Nocardiae. Infect Immun 11:257–264, 1975

  23. 23.

    Kirchner H, Darai G, Hirt HM, Keyssner K, Munk K: In vitro mitogenic stimulation of murine spleen cells by Herpes simplex virus. J Immunol 120:641–645, 1978

  24. 24.

    Smith SM, Snyder IS, Burrell R: Mitogenic response toMicropolyspora faeni cell walls. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:298–304, 1980

  25. 25.

    Willoughby WF, Willoughby JB: Macrophage activation byMicropolyspora faeni. (manuscript in preparation).

  26. 26.

    Pauli RM, DeSalle L, Higgens P, Henderson E, Norin A, Strauss B: Proliferation of stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Preferential incorporation of Con A by stimulated cells and mitogenic activity. J Immunol 111:424–432, 1973

  27. 27.

    Cunningham BA, Sela B, Yahara I, Edelman GM: Structure and activity of lymphocyte mitogens, in Oppenheim JJ, Rosenstreich DL (eds): Mitogens in Immunobiology. New York, Academic, 1976, pp 13–30

  28. 28.

    Crumpton MJ, Auger J, Green NM, Maino VC: Surface membrane events following activation by lectins and calcium ionophore, in Oppenheim, Rosenstreich (eds): Mitogens in Immunobiology, Orlando, FL, Academic, 1976, pp 85–101

  29. 29.

    Niedel JE, Kuhn LJ, Vandenbank GR: Phorbol diester receptor copurifies with protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:36–40, 1983

  30. 30.

    Damp JE, Pearsall DM, Kaplan LT: Beans for Valdivia. Science 212:811–812, 1981

  31. 31.

    Lis H, Sharon N: Biochemistry of plant lectins (phytohemagglutinins). Annu Rev Biochem 42:541–574, 1973

  32. 32.

    Reeke GN, Becker JW, Cunningham BA, Gunther GR, Wang JL, Edelman GM: Relationships between the structure and activities of concanavalin A. Ann NY Acad Sci 234:369–382, 1974

  33. 33.

    Moller G, Andersson J, Pohlit H: Quantitation of the number of mitogen molecules activating DNA synthesis in T and B lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 13:89–99, 1973

  34. 34.

    Remold HG, David RA, David JR: Characterization of migration inhibitory factor (MIF) from guinea pig lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A. J Immunol 109:578–586, 1972

  35. 35.

    Boulos GN, Rosenau W, Goldbert ML: Comparison and yield of antigen or mitogen-induced lymphotoxins. J Immunol 112:1347–1353, 1974

  36. 36.

    Siraganian RP, Siraganian PA: Mechanisms of action of Con A on human basophils. J Immunol 114:885–893, 1975

  37. 37.

    Hirata F, Axelrod J: Phospholipid methylation and biological signal transmission. Science 209:1082–1090, 1980

  38. 38.

    Ishizaka T: Biochemical analysis of triggering signals induced by bridging of IgE receptors. Fed Proc 14:17–21, 1982

  39. 39.

    Maizel AL, Lachman LB: Biology of disease. Control of human lymphocyte proliferation by soluble factors. Lab Invest 50:369–377, 1984

  40. 40.

    Schwartz HJ, Catanzaro PJ, Leon MA: An analysis of the effects of skin reactive factor released from lymphoid cells by concanavalin A in vivo. Am J Pathol 63:443–453, 1971

  41. 41.

    Stadecker MJ, Leskowitz S: The cutaneous basophil response to mitogens. J Immunol 113:496–506, 1974

  42. 42.

    Nopanitaya W, Hanker J, Tyan M: Concanavalin A toxicity: Histological studies. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 153:213–219, 1976

  43. 43.

    Plavy DL, Baughn RE, Musher DM: Mitogenic activity of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in vivo: Morphological and functional characterization of responding cells. Infect Immun 19:71–78, 1978

  44. 44.

    Andres GA, Cerra F, Elti G, Casciani C, Cortesini R, Hsu HC: Lymphocytes and blast cell glomerulonephritis in renal allografts of rats injected with phytohemagglutinin. Cell Immunol 13:146–163, 1974

  45. 45.

    Willoughby WF, Barbaras JE, Wheelis R: Immunologic mechanisms in experimental interstitial pneumonitis. Chest 69S:290–294, 1976

  46. 46.

    Willoughby JB, Willoughby WF: In vivo responses to inhaled proteins. I. Quantitative analysis of antigen uptake, fate and immunogenicity in a rabbit model system. J Immunol 119:2137–2146, 1977

  47. 47.

    Willoughby WF, Willoughby JB, Cantrell BR, Wheelis, R: In vivo responses to inhaled proteins. II. Cell-mediated and immune complex mediated lung injury. Lab Invest 40:399–414, 1979

  48. 48.

    Passwell JH, Dayer, JM, Merler E: Increased prostaglandin production by human monocytes after membrane receptor activation. J Immunol 123:115–120, 1979

  49. 49.

    Shenker BJ, Willoughby WF, Hollingdale MR, Mann TN: In vivo responses to inhaled proteins, III. Inhibition of experimental immune complex pneumonitis after suppression of peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Immunol 124:1763–1772, 1980

  50. 50.

    Willoughby WF, Willoughby JB: Antigen handling, in Bienenstock (ed): Immunology of the Lung. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1984, pp 174–190

  51. 51.

    Willoughby WF, Willoughby JB: Immunologic mechanisms of parenchymal lung injury. Environ Health Perspect 55:239–257, 1984

  52. 52.

    Snell JD: Effects of inhaled endotoxin. J Lab Clin Med 67:624–632, 1966

  53. 53.

    Cavagna G, Foa V, Vigliani EC: Effects in man and rabbits of inhalation of cotton dust or extracts and purified endotoxins. Br J Indust Med 26:314–321, 1969

  54. 54.

    Demaria TF, Burrell R: Effects of inhaled endotoxin-containing bacteria. Environ Res 23:87–97, 1980

  55. 55.

    Flaherty DK, Deck FH, Cooper J, Bishop K, Wizenburger PA, Smith LR, Bynum L, Witmer WB: Bacterial endotoxin isolated from a water spray air humudification system as a putative agent of occupation-related lung disease. Infect Immun 43:206–212, 1984

  56. 56.

    Willoughby WF, Willoughby JB, Simon PL: Macrophage activation and cytokine production in experimental interstitial pneumonitis. Fed Proc 43:889, 1984 (Abstract)

  57. 57.

    Simon PL, Willoughby WF: The role of subcellular factors in pulmonary immune function: Physicochemical characterization of two distinct species of lymphocyte-activating factor produced by rabbit alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 126:1534–1541, 1981

  58. 58.

    Moller E, Strom H, Al-Balaghi S: Role of polyclonal activation in specific immune responses. Scand J Immunol 12:177–182, 1980

  59. 59.

    Teodorescu M: Characterization and role in autoimmune diseases of the polyclonal B-cell activator produced by T-cells—The helper factor. Immunol Rev 55:155–178, 1981

  60. 60.

    Izui S, Eisenberg RA, Dixon FJ, IgM rheumatoid factors in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides. J Immunol 122:2096–2102, 1979

  61. 61.

    Izui S, Kobayakawa T, Zryd MJ, Lambert PH: Mechanism for induction of anti-DNA antibodies by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in mice. II. Correlation between anti-DNA induction and polyclonal antibody formation by various polyclonal B lymphocyte activators. J Immunol 119:2157–2162, 1977

  62. 62.

    Cavallo T, Goldman M, Lambert PH: Proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with polyclonal B-cell activation. Am J Pathol 114:346–348, 1984

  63. 63.

    Kunkel HG: The immunopathology of SLE. Hosp Pract (Nov): 47–56, 1980

  64. 64.

    Johnson KJ, Ward PA: Acute and progressive lung injury after contact with phorbol myristate acetate. Am J Pathol 107:29–35, 1982

  65. 65.

    Kolata G: Clues to cell growth and differentiation. Science 220:291–292, 1983

  66. 66.

    Richerson HB, Suelzer MT, Swanson PA, Butler JE, Kopp WC, Rose EF: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis produced in the rabbit by the adjuvant effect of inhaled muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Am J Pathol 106:409–420, 1982

  67. 67.

    Wood DD, Staruch MJ: Control of the mitogenicity of muramyl dipeptide. Int J Immunopharmacol 3:31–44, 1981

  68. 68.

    Oppenheim JJ, Togawa A, Chedid L, Mizel S: Components of mycobacteria and muramyl dipeptide with adjuvant activity induce lymphocyte activating factor. Cell Immunol 50:71–81, 1980

  69. 69.

    Kaku M, Yagawa K, Nagao S, Tanaka A: Enhanced superoxide anion release from phagocytes by muramyl dipeptide or lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 39:559–564, 1983

  70. 70.

    Tanaka A, Emori K, Nagao S, Kushima K, Kohashi O, Saitoh M, Kataoka T: Epitheloid granuloma formation requiring no T-cell function. Am J Pathol 106:165–170, 1982

  71. 71.

    Bowers RR, Houston F, Clinton R, Lewis M, Ballard R: A histological study of the carrageenan induced granuloma in the rat lung. J Pathol 132:243–253, 1980

  72. 72.

    Sugawara I, Ishizaka S, Moller G: Carrageenans, highly sulfated polysaccharides and macrophage-toxic agents: Newly found human T lymphocyte mitogens. Immunobiology 163:527–538, 1982

  73. 73.

    Bowden DH: Unraveling pulmonary fibrosis: The bleomycin model. Lab Invest 50:587–88, 1984

  74. 74.

    Thrall RS, Lovett EJ III, Barton RW, McCormick JR, Phan SH, Ward PA: The effect of T-cell depletion on the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat. Am Rev Respir Dis 121 (Suppl):99, 1980 (abstr)

  75. 75.

    Thrall RS, McCormick JR, Phan SH, Jack RH, Ward PA: The effect of antilymphocyte globulin on the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat. Am Rev Respir Dis 119 (Suppl):83, 1979 (abstr)

  76. 76.

    Schrier DJ, Phan SH, McGarry BM: The effects of the nude (nu/nu) mutation on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 127:614–617, 1983

  77. 77.

    Postlethwaite AE, Snyderman R, Kang AH: The chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to a lymphocyte-derived factor. J Exp Med 144:1188–1203, 1976

  78. 78.

    Johnson RL, Ziff M: Lymphokine stimulation of collagen accumulation. J Clin Invest 58:240–251, 1976

  79. 79.

    Wahl SM, Gately CC: Modulation of fibroblast growth by a lymphokine of human T cell and continuous T cell line origin. J Immunol 130:1226–1230, 1983

  80. 80.

    Wesselius LJ, Catanzaro A, Wasserman SI: Neutrophil chemotactic activity generation by alveolar macrophages after bleomycin injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:485–490, 1984

  81. 81.

    Kovacs EJ, Kelley J: Is macrophage-derived growth factor a major growth stimulus in situ following lung injury? Am Rev Respir Dis 129(Suppl):A19, 1984 (abstr)

  82. 82.

    Murphy PA, Simon PL, Willoughby WF: Exogenous pyrogens made by rabbit peritoneal exudate cells are identical with lymphocyte-activating factors made by rabbit alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 124:2498–2501, 1980

  83. 83.

    Rosenwasser LJ, Dinarello CA: Ability of human leukocytic pyrogen to enhance phytohemagglutinin induced murine thymocyte proliferation. Cell Immunol 63:134–142, 1981

  84. 84.

    Mizel SB: Interleukin 1 and T cell activation. Immunol Rev 63:51–72, 1982

  85. 85.

    Sztein MB, Vogel SN, Sipe JD, Murphy PA, Mizel SB, Oppenheim JJ, Rosenstreich DL: The role of macrophages in the acute-phase response: SAA inducer is closely related to lymphocyte activating factor and endogenous pyrogen. Cell Immunol 63:164–176, 1981

  86. 86.

    Schmidt JA, Mizel SB, Cohen D, Green I: Interleukin 1, a potential regulator of fibroblast proliferation. J Immunol 128:2177–2182, 1982

  87. 87.

    Pick E, Keisari Y: Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by chemically elicited peritoneal macrophages—Induction by multiple nonphagocytic stimuli. Cell Immunol 59:301–318, 1981

  88. 88.

    Gerberick GF, Willoughby WF: Production of oxygen derived free radicals (OFR) by alveolar macrophages (AM) requires priming by a serum factor. Fed Proc 43:405, 1984 (abstr)

  89. 89.

    Gerberick GF, Willoughby JB, Willoughby WF: Serum factor requirement for reactive oxygen intermediate release by rabbit alveolar macrophages. J Exp Med (in press)

  90. 90.

    Kaku M, Yagawa K, Nagao S, Tanaka A: Enhanced superoxide anion release from phagocytes by muramyl dipeptide or lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 39:559–564, 1983

  91. 91.

    Freeman BA, Crapo JD: Biology of disease. Free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest 47:412–426, 1982

  92. 92.

    Salvaggio J, Phanuphak P, Stanford R, Bice D, Claman H: Experimental production of granulomatous pneumonitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56:364–380, 1975

  93. 93.

    Richerson HB, Seidenfeld JJ, Ratajczak HV, Richards DW: Chronic experimental interstitial pneumonitis in the rabbit. Am Rev Respir Dis 117:5–13, 1978

  94. 94.

    Johnson KJ, Ward PA: Immune complex injury of the lung. Am J Pathol 97:85–91, 1979

  95. 95.

    Schatz M, Patterson R, Fink J: Immunological lung disease. N Engl J Med 300:1310–1320, 1979

  96. 96.

    Salvaggio JE: Overview of occupational immunologic lung disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 70:5–10, 1982

  97. 97.

    Suzuki S, Huchet R: Mechanism of histamine-induced inhibition of lymphocyte response to mitogens in mice. Cell Immunol 62:396–405, 1981

  98. 98.

    Schmidt JA, Oliver CN, Lepe-Zuniga JL, Green I, Gery I: Silica-stimulated monocytes release fibroblast proliferation factors identical to interleukin 1. J Clin Invest 73:1462–1472, 1984

  99. 99.

    Hartmann DP, Malageorgian M, Oghiso Y, Kagan E: Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation. Clin Exp Immunol 55:643–650, 1984

  100. 100.

    Pernis B, Vigliani EC: The role of macrophages and immunocytes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases due to mineral dusts. Am J Indust Med 3:133–137, 1982

  101. 101.

    Stankus RP, Salvaggio JE: Bronchopulmonary humoral and cellular enhancement in experimental silicosis. J Reticuloendothel Soc 29:153–161, 1981

  102. 102.

    Doll NJ, Stankus RP, Hughes J, Weill H, Gupta RC, Rodriguez M, Jones RN, Alspaugh MA, Salvaggio JE: Immune complexes and autoantibodies in silicosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68:281–285, 1981

  103. 103.

    Teodorescu M, Ganea D, Lee TT, Skosey JL, Rutter G: The effect of protease inhibitors on the polyclonal B cell activator from the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Immunopharmacol 4:1–7, 1982

  104. 104.

    Fischer E, Camus D, Santoro F, Capron A:Schistosoma mansoni: Autoantibodies and polyclonal B cell activation in infected mice. Clin Exp Immunol 46:89–97, 1981

  105. 105.

    Schwartz RS: Epstein-Barr virus—Oncogen or mitogen? N Engl J Med 302:1307–1308, 1980

  106. 106.

    Bick PH, Carpenter AB, Holdeman LV, Miller GA, Ranney RR, Palcanis KG, Tew JG: Polyclonal B-cell activation induced by extracts of gram-negative bacteria isolated from peridontally diseased sites. Infect Immun 34:43–49, 1981

  107. 107.

    Stokes TC, McCann BG, Rees RT, Sims EH, Harrison BDW: Acute fulminating intrapulmonary hemorrhage in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Thorax 37:315–316, 1982

  108. 108.

    Keller RH, Calvanico NJ, Stevens JO: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nonhuman primates. I. Studies on the relationship or immunoregulation and disease activity. J Immunol 128:116–122, 1982

  109. 109.

    Keller RH, Fink JN, Lyman S, Pedersen G: Irnmunoregulation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. I. Differences in T-cell and macrophage suppressor activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic pigeon breeders. J Clin Immunol 2:46–54, 1982

  110. 110.

    Schorlemmer HU, Bitter-Suermann D, Allison AC: Complement activation by the alternative pathway and macrophage enzyme secretion in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. Immunology 32:929–940, 1977

  111. 111.

    Butcher BT, Salvaggio JE, Weill H, Ziskind MM: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) pulmonary disease: Immunologic and inhalation challenge studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 58:89–100, 1976

  112. 112.

    Hunninghake GW, Crystal RG: Pulmonary sarcoidosis. A disorder mediated by excess helper T-lymphocyte activity at sites of disease activity. N Engl J Med 305:429–434, 1981

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to William F. Willoughby MD.

Additional information

Supported in part by USPHS Grants HL-19819, HL-26794, AI-07247, and by Cotton, Inc.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Willoughby, W.F., Willoughby, J.B. & Gerberick, G.F. Polyclonal activators in pulmonary immune disease. Clin Rev Allergy 3, 197–216 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02992983

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cholera Toxin
  • Allergy Clin Immunol
  • Reactive Oxygen Intermediate
  • Silicosis
  • Muramyl Dipeptide