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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia M5b Developed during Clinical Remission of Castleman Disease

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Castleman disease (CD) is a rare heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disease characterized by clinical symptoms due to an excess of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or IL-6-like activity. We describe the first case of CD associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A 55-year-old man presented with skin rash on his face and multiple cervical lymphadenopathy.The results of examination of his lymph node biopsy specimen led to a diagnosis of CD.The symptoms resolved after the administration of prednisolone.Three years after the onset of CD, the patient’s white blood cell count had increased to 63.4 x 109/L. His bone marrow aspirate showed that approximately 80% of cells were leukemic, including well-differentiated monocytic cells.A diagnosis of AML M5b was made. The patient died of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after chemotherapy.

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Correspondence to Akira Tomonari or Naoki Shirafuji or Arinobu Tojo or Tohru Iseki or Jun Ooi or Itaru Komiya or Kenzaburo Tani or Shigetaka Asano.

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Tomonari, A., Shirafuji, N., Tojo, A. et al. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia M5b Developed during Clinical Remission of Castleman Disease. Int J Hematol 77, 274–276 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02983785

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Key words

  • Castleman disease
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia
  • HHV-8
  • Autoimmune thrombocytopenia