Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Observations on heterosis inLycopersicum

Summary

1. The investigation was undertaken in order to determine in what type of hybrid, and at what stage in the life cycle of such hybrids, heterosis was manifested.

2. Populations of seven inbred and twelve hybrid lines ofLycopersicum spp. were grown and sampled at 16, 29 and 145 days after sowing.

3. The hybrids did not germinate more quickly than their parents.

4. There was found to be very little correspondence between the presence of heterosis in the seed and in the mature hybrid, and the reasons for this are discussed.

5. No size differences were observed, either at 16 or 145 days, between reciprocal hybrids from seeds of different weight.

6. In certain hybrids heterosis was already established in the young shoot primordium by the 16th day and was maintained on a relative basis until the 145th day. In others heterosis arose subsequent to the 16th day.

7. The heights of the plants on the 139th day bore no very close relationships to their weights; several hybrids which exhibited weight heterosis did not show height heterosis and vice versa.

8. The time of flowering of the hybrids was intermediate between that of their parents, except in intraspecific crosses which differed in a major growth factor (d orbr), when dominance of early flowering was shown.

9. Heterosis in certain intraspecific hybrids is explicable on Jones’s theory of the dominance of linked size-determining factors, but in the case of interspecific hybrids it is considered that the hypothesis proposed by East gives a better interpretation of the facts.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ashby, E. (1930). “Studies in the inheritance of physiological characters. I. A physiological investigation of the nature of hybrid vigour in maize.”Ann. Bot., Lond.,44, 457.

  2. —— (1932). “Studies in the inheritance of physiological characters. II. Further experiments upon the basis of hybrid vigour and upon the inheritance of the efficiency index in maize.”Ann. Bot., Lond.,46, 1007.

  3. —— (1937). “Studies in the inheritance of physiological characters. III. Hybrid vigour in the tomato. Part I. Manifestations of hybrid vigour from germination to the onset of flowering.”Ann. Bot., Lond., N.S.1, 11.

  4. Blackman, V. H. (1919). “The compound interest law and plant growth.”Ann. Bot., Lond.,33, 353.

  5. Bond, T. E. T. (1938). “On the nomenclature of the currant tomato,Lycopersicum pimpinellifolium Mill.”Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 150, 181.

  6. Castle, W. E. &Wright, S. (1916). “Inheritance in guinea-pigs and rats.”Publ. Carneg. Instn. no. 241.

  7. Collins, G. N. &Kempton, J. H. (1913). “Effects of cross-pollination on the size of the seed in maize.”Circ. U.S. Dep. Agric. no. 124.

  8. East, E. M. (1936). “Heterosis.”Genetics,21, 375.

  9. East, E. M. &Jones, D. F. (1919).Inbreeding and Outbreeding. Philadelphia.

  10. —— —— (1920). “Genetic studies on the protein content of maize.”Genetics,5, 543.

  11. Engledow, F. L. &Pal, B. P. (1934). “Investigations on yield in cereals. VIII. Hybrid vigour in wheat.”J. agric. Sci. 24, 390.

  12. Fabergé, A. C. (1936). “The physiological consequences of polyploidy. I. Growth and size in the tomato.”J. Genet. 33, 365.

  13. —— (1938). “A simple spring torsion balance.”J. sci. Instrum. 25, 17.

  14. Fisher, R. A. (1936).Statistical Methods for Research Workers, 6th ed. Edinburgh.

  15. Hackbarth, J., Loschkowa-Hasenbuch, N. &Sengsbusch, R. V. (1933). “Die Züchtung frühreifer Tomaten mittels Kreuzungen zwischenSolanum lycopersicum undSolanum racemigerum.”Züchter,5, 97.

  16. Humphrey, L. M. (1937). “A cytological and morphological analysis of tomato species.”Cytologia, Tokyo,8, 306.

  17. Jones, D. F. (1917). “The dominance of linked factors as a means of accounting for heterosis.”Genetics,2, 466.

  18. —— (1918). “The bearing of heterosis upon double fertilization.”Bot. Gaz. 65, 324.

  19. Keeble, F. &Pellew, C. (1910). “The mode of inheritance of stature and time of flowering in peas (Pisum sativum).”J. Genet. 1, 47.

  20. Kölreuter, J. G. (1766).Dritte Fortselzung der verläufigen Nachricht von einigen das Geschlecht der Pflanzen betreffenden Versuchen und Beobachtungen. Leipzig.

  21. Kopeć, S. (1927). “The morphogenetical value of the weight of rabbits at birth.”J. Genet. 17, 187.

  22. Lindstrom, E. W. (1935). “Genetic experiments on hybrid vigour in maize.”Amer. Nat. 69, 311.

  23. Livesay, E. A. (1930). “An experimental study of hybrid vigour or heterosis in rats.”Genetics,15, 17.

  24. Luckwill, L. C. (1937). “Studies in the inheritance of physiological characters. IV. Hybrid vigour in the tomato. Part 2. Manifestations of hybrid vigour during the flowering period.”Ann. Bot., Lond., N.S.1, 379.

  25. -- (1939). “On the factors affecting the mean seed weight of tomato fruits.” (In the Press.)

  26. MacArthur, J. W. (1934). “Linkage groups in the tomato.”J. Genet. 29, 123.

  27. Malinowski, E. (1935). “Studies on hybrid vigour inPhaseolus vulgaris L. Savi. Part 1.”Z. indukt. Abstamm.- u. VererbLehre,70, 1.

  28. Manglesdorf, P. C. &Reeves, R. G. (1931). “Hybridization in maize,Tripsacum andEuchlaena.”J. Hered. 22, 329.

  29. Mendel, G. (1865). “Experiments in plant hybridization.” Translation in Bateson (1913):Mendel’s Principles of Heredity. Cambridge.

  30. Passmore, S. F. (1934). “Hybrid vigour in reciprocal crosses ofCucurbita Peop.”Ann. Bot., Lond.,48, 1029.

  31. Roberts, E. &Laibile, R. J. (1925). “Heterosis in pigs.”J. Hered. 16, 383.

  32. Sansome, F. W. (1933). “Chromatid segregation inLycopersicum.”J. Genet. 27, 105.

  33. Schlösser, L. A. (1938). “Fruchtstandshöhe und Reifungsgeschwindigkeit bei Tomaten.”Züchter,10, 132.

  34. Shull, G. H. (1910). “Hybridization methods in corn breeding.”Amer. Breed. Mag. 1, 98.

  35. Sprague, G. F. (1936). “Hybrid vigour and growth rates in a maize cross and its reciprocal.”J. agric. Res. 53, 831.

  36. Thayer, G. B. (1934). “Inheritance of cotyledonary characters inCucurbita Pepo.”Bull. Torrey. Bot. Cl. 61, 263.

  37. Umeya, Y. (1930). “Studies on the vigour of silkworms,Bombyx mori L.”Genetics,15, 189.

  38. Wingard, S. A. (1927). “The immediate effect of cross-pollination on the size and shape of the bean seed.”Genetics,12, 115.

  39. Yamasaki, Y. (1937). “Embryo transplanting as a method of genetico-physiological investigation.”Proc. Crop. Sci. Soc. Japan,9, 382.

  40. Yeager, A. F. &Meader, E. (1937). “Short cuts in tomato breeding.”Proc. Amer. Soc. hort. Sci. 35, 539.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Leonard C. Luckwill.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Luckwill, L.C. Observations on heterosis inLycopersicum . Journ. of Genetics 37, 421 (1939). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02982737

Download citation

Keywords

  • Seed Weight
  • Hybrid Seed
  • Maternal Parent
  • Hybrid Line
  • Hybrid Vigour