Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Chromosome fragmentation produced by crossing-over inTrillium erectum L.

  • 19 Accesses

  • 18 Citations


A chromatid fragment lacking an attachment has been found to occur in about 12 per cent. of the pollen mother cells in two plants ofTrillium erectum L.

Crossing-over between a normalD-chromosome and one with an inverted segment comprising about one-sixteenth of the length of its longer arm appears to be the cause of thede novo origin of this fragment in meiosis.

Crossing-over in this region produces at the same time a chromatid with two attachments. In about one-fifth of the cases these are “sister” attachments and the chromatid therefore goes to one pole in the form of a loop in the heterotypic division. In about four-fifths of the cases the attachments are homologous and go to opposite poles and the chromatid therefore forms a bridge across the nucleus.

The “loop” type forms a bridge in the homoeotypic division. In whichever division it occurs the “bridge” chromatid usually breaks near the middle, though it may break at any point. Sometimes the “bridge” chromatid of the first division remains unbroken and it stretches between the daughter nuclei at the second division.

The fragment chromatid does not divide in either meiotic division, although the “tertiary” split of diakinesis is very clearly seen in it at all stages.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Huskins, C. L. (1929). “Criteria of Hybridity.”Science,69 (1789), 399–400.

  2. —— (1933). “Mitosis and Meiosis.”Nature, Lond.,132, 62–3.

  3. Huskins, C. L. andSmith, S. G. (1935). “Meiotic chromosome structure inTrillium erectum L.”Ann. Bot. (in the press).

  4. McClintock, B. (1933). “The association of non-homologous parts of chromosomes in the mid-prophase of meiosis inZea Mays.”Z. Zellforsch.19 (2), 192–237.

  5. Meurman, O. (1925). “The chromosome behaviour of some dioecious plants and their relatives with special reference to the sex chromosomes.”Soc. Scient. Fennica, Comm. Biol.2 (3), 2–104.

  6. —— (1928). “Cytological studies in the genusRibes L.”Hereditas,11, 289–356.

  7. —— (1929). “Association and types of chromosomes inAucuba japonica.” Ibid.12, 179–209.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Stanley G. Smith.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Smith, S.G. Chromosome fragmentation produced by crossing-over inTrillium erectum L.. Journ of Genetics 30, 227–232 (1935). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02982237

Download citation


  • Meiotic Division
  • Pollen Mother Cell
  • Daughter Nucleus
  • Attachment Region
  • Inversion Region