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Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid: A naturally occurring inhibitor ofSpodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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Ruscus hypoglossum andUrginea maritima (Liliaceae) are highly resistant toSpodoptera littoralis. The foliage of these plants contains a proline analog, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZA): inUrginea at a concentration of 1.7% of fresh weight and inRuscus at a concentration of 0.019%. The concentration of AZA inUrginea accounts for its lethal effects onS. littoralis larvae and for the direct effect of an acetone-soluble 80% methanol extract on adultS. littoralis, as evidenced by reduced viability of eggs deposited. The toxicity ofRuscus extracts is only partly attributable to AZA content.

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Correspondence to Esther Hassid or S. W. Applebaum or Yehudith Birk.

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Hassid, E., Applebaum, S.W. & Birk, Y. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid: A naturally occurring inhibitor ofSpodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Phytoparasitica 4, 173 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02981084

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Key words

  • Ruscus hypoglossum
  • Urginea maritima
  • Spodoptera littoralis
  • azetidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • non-protein amino acids