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Biology ofSpectrobates ceratoniae on almonds in Israel

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Abstract

Field observations and recording of carob moth [Spectrobates ceratonia (Zell.)] infestation in almonds revealed the following pattern of generation sequence. The moths overwinter as larvae in nuts left on the trees after harvest; these pupate in mid-February and adults emerge from mid-March until June, with a peak emergence in April-May. Emerging females lay mainly on new nuts infected by the anthracnose disease as well as on old nuts, if available. The first summer generation reached adulthood from May to July, at which time hullsplit nuts of the new crops are available for oviposition. One to two generations develop on the hullsplit nuts before winter, thus bringing the annual average to three or four generations. Eggs are dispersed evenly among the nuts, usually with a single egg laid on each nut. The hatching larvae feed on the kernel, causing economic damage, or on the hull. Damage may be reduced by early harvesting. Natural parasitism of the carob moth on almonds was insignificant. A few other moth species infest almond nuts, but do not cause any significant damage.

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Correspondence to S. Gothilf.

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Gothilf, S. Biology ofSpectrobates ceratoniae on almonds in Israel. Phytoparasitica 12, 77 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980801

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Key words

  • Spectrobates ceratoniae
  • carob moth
  • almonds
  • biology of carob moth
  • infestation of almonds by carob moth
  • anthracnose disease