In the present studies, the acute toxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) and its analog, 1,2-dibromopropane (1,2-DBP), were investigated in female BALB/c mice. The mice were treated orally with either 2-BP at 2000 and 4000 mg/kg or 1,2-DBP at 300 and 600 mg/kg. Four days before necropsy, the mice were immunized intraperitoneally with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). 1,2-DBP reduced the weights of the spleen and thymus weights and decreased the number of splenic cells. In addition, treatment with 1,2-DBP suppressed the antibody response to SRBCs. Meanwhile, only the antibody response was significantly suppressed by treatment with 2-BP. In the subsequent studies, the time course effects of 2-BP and 1,2-DBP on the hepatotoxic parameters were compared in female BALB/c mice. When mice were treated orally with either one of these chemicals for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase elevated significantly only with 1,2-DBP 24 h after the treatment. The hepatic content of glutathione was reduced by 1,2-DBP. Meanwhile, these parameters were increased by 2-BP. The present results suggest that 1,2-DBP in the Solvent 5200 also contributes to the immnunotoxicity, although 2-BP is a major component.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Ellman, G. L., Tissue sulfhydryl group.Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 82, 70–77 (1959).
Ichihara, G., Asaeda, N., Kumazawa, T., Tagawa, Y, Kamijima, M., Yu, X., Kondo, H., Nakajima, T., Kitoh, J., Yu, I. J., Moon, Y. H., Hisanaga, N., and Takeuchi, Y, Testicular and hematopoietic toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a substitute for ozone layer-depleting chlorofluorocarbons.J. Occup. Health, 39, 57–63 (1997).
Ishikawa, H., Tian, Y., and Yamauch, T., Induction of micronuclei formation in preimplantation mouse embryos after maternal treatment with 2-bromopropane.Reprod. Toxicol., 15, 81–85 (2001).
Japanese Society for Occupational Health, Recommendation of occupational exposure limits.J. Occup. Health, 41, 191–206 (1999).
Jeong, T. C., Lee, E. S., Chae, W., Koh, W. S., Kang, B. H., and Han, S. S., Immunotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane in male Sprague-Dawley rats: a 28-day exposure study.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A., 65, 383–394 (2002).
Kamijima, M., Ichihara, G., Kitoh, J., Tsukamura, H., Maeda, K., Yu, X., Xie, Z., Nakajima, T., Asaeda, N., Hisanaga, N., and Takeuchi, Y, Ovarian toxicity of 2-bromopropane in the nonpregnant female rat.J. Occup. Health, 39, 144–149 (1997).
Kaminski, N. E., Barnes, D. W., Jordan, S. D., and Holsapple, M. P., The role of metabolism in carbon tetrachloridemediated immunosuppression:In vivo studies.Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 102, 9–20 (1990).
Kim, Y., Jung, K, Hwang, T., Jung, G., Kim, H., Park, J., Park, D., Park, S., Choi, K., and Moon, Y., Hematopoietic and reproductive hazards of Korean electronic workers exposed to solvents containing 2-bromopropane.Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 22, 381–391 (1996).
Lag, M. S., Derlund, E. J., Omichincki, J. G., Brunborg, G., Holme, J. A., Dahl, J. E., Nelson, S. D., and Dybing, E., Effect of bromine and chlorine poisoning in the induction of renal and testicular toxicity by halogenated propanes.Chem. Res. Toxicol., 4, 528–534 (1991).
Lim, C. H., Maeng, S. H., Lee, J. Y., Chang, Y. H., Kim, T. G., Park, J. H., Moon, Y. H., and Yu, I. J., Effects of 2-bromopropane on the female reproductive function in Sprague-Dawley rats.Ind. Health, 35, 278–284 (1997).
Lowry, O. H., Rosenbrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., and Randall, R. J., Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent.J. Biol. Chem., 193, 265–275 (1951).
Maeng, S. H. and Yu, I. J., Mutagenicity of 2-bromopropane.Ind. Health, 35, 87–95 (1997).
Omura, M., Romero, Y., Zhao, M., and Inoue, N., Histopathological evidence that spermatogonia are the target cells of 2-bromopropane.Toxicol. Lett., 104, 19–26 (1999).
Park, J. A., Kim, Y., Park, D. W., Choi, K. S., Park, S. H., and Moon, Y. H., An outbreak of hematopoietic and reproductive disorders due to solvents containing 2-bromopropane in an electronic factory, South Korea: epidemiological survey.J. Occup. Health, 39, 138–143 (1997).
Sekiguchi, S. and Honma, T., Influence of 2-bromopropane on reproductive system: 2-bromopropane inhibits forced ovulation in mice.Ind. Health, 36, 297–299 (1998).
Stolzenberg S. J. and Hine C. H., Mutagenicity of 2- and 3-carbon halogenated compounds in theSalmonella/Mammalian-microsome test.Environ. Mutagen. 2, 59–66 (1980).
Volgel E. and Chandler J. L. R., Mutagenicity testing of cyclamate and some pesticides inDrosophila melanogaster.Experientia, 30, 621–623 (1974).
Yu, I. J., Chung, Y. H., Lim, C. H., Maeng, S. H., Lee, J. Y., Lee, S. J., Kim, C. H., Kim, T. G., Lim, C. H., Park, J. S., and Moon, Y. H., Reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane in Sprague Dawley rats.Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 23, 281–288 (1997).
Yu, I. J., Kim, H. Y., Lim, C. H., Lee, Y. M., and Moon, Y. H., The occupational exposure level (OEL) for 2-bromopropane: the first OEL established by Korea.Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 14, 356–358 (1999a).
Yu, X., Ichihara, G., Kitoh, J., Xie, Z., Shibata, E., Kamijima, M. and Takeuchi, Y., Neurotoxicity of 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane, alternative solvents for chlorofluorocarbons.Environ. Res., 85, 48–52 (2001).
Yu, X., Kamijima, M., Ichihara, G., Li, W., Kitoh, J., Xie, Z., Shibata, E., Hisanaga, N., and Takeuchi, Y., 2-Bromopropane causes ovarian dysfunction by damaging primordial follicles and their oocytes in female rats.Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 159, 185–193 (1999b).
Wu, X. D., Faqi, A. S., Yang, J., Ding, X., Jiang, X., and Chahoud, I., Male reproductive toxicity and beta-luteinizing hormone gene expression in sexually mature and immature rats exposed to 2-bromopropane.Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 18, 683–690 (1999).
Zhao, L. X., Kim, E. K., Lim, H. T., Moon, Y. S., Kim, N. H., Kim, T. H., Choi, H., Chae, W., Jeong, T. C., and Lee, E. S., Synthesis, characterization andin vitro identification ofN 7-guanine adduct of 2-bromopropane.Arch. Pharm. Res., 25, 39–44 (2002).
About this article
Cite this article
Kim, N.H., Hyun, S.H., Jin, C.H. et al. Acute effects of 2-bromopropane and 1,2-dibromopropane on hepatotoxic and immunotoxic parameters in female BALB/c mice. Arch Pharm Res 26, 943–950 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980204
- Antibody response