Intention, Goal, Scope, Background
Cyanobacteria have the natural ability to degrade moderate amounts of organic pollutants. However, when pollutant concentration exceeds the level of tolerance, bleaching of the cells and death occur within 24 hours. Under stress conditions, cyanobacterial response includes the short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to light quality, named state transitions. Moreover, prolonged stresses produce changes in the functional organization of phycobilisomes and in the core-complexes of both photosystems, which can result in large changes in the PS II fluorescence yield. The localization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) at the ends of some peripheral rods of the cyanobacterial phycobilisomes, makes this protein a useful marker to check phycobilisome integrity.
The goal of this work is to improve the knowledge of the mechanism of action of a very potent pesticide, lindane (γ-hexaclorociclohexane), in the cyanobacteriumAnabaena sp., which can be considered a potential candidate for bioremediation of pesticides. We have studied the effect of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus ofAnabaena using fluorescence induction studies. As ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase plays a key role in the response to oxidative stress in several systems, changes in synthesis, degradation and activity of FNR were analyzed. Immunolocalization of this enzyme was used as a marker of phycobilisome integrity. The knowledge of the changes caused by lindane in the photosynthetic apparatus is essential for rational further design of genetically-modified cyanobacteria with improved biorremediation abilities.
Polyphasic chlorophylla fluorescence rise measurements (OJIP) have been used to evaluate the vitality and stress adaptation of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteriumAnabaena PCC 7119 in the presence of increasing concentrations of lindane. Effects of the pesticide on the ultrastructure have been investigated by electron microscopy, and FNR has been used as a marker of phycobilisome integrity.
Results and Discussion
Cultures ofAnabaena sp. treated with moderate amounts of lindane showed a decrease in growth rate followed by a recovery after 72 hours of pesticide treatment. Concentrations of lindane below 5 ppm increased the photosynthetic performance and activity of the cells. Higher amounts of pesticide caused a decrease in these activities which seems to be due to a non-competitive inhibition of PS II. Active PS II units are converted into non-QA reducing, so called heat sink centers. Specific activity and amount of FNR in lindane-treated cells were similar to the values measured in control cultures. Release of FNR from the thylakoid after 48 hours of exposure to 5 ppm of lindane towards the cytoplasm was detected by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy.
From these results, we conclude that the photosynthetic performance and activity of the cells are slightly increased in the presence of lindane up to 5 ppm. Moreover, in those conditions, iindane did not produce significant changes in the synthesis, degradation or activity of FNR. The high capability ofAnabaena to tolerate lindane makes this cyanobacterium a good candidate for phytoremediation of polluted areas.
Recommendation and Outlook
The results of this study show that cultures ofAnabaena PCC 7119 tolerate lindane up to 5 ppm, without significant changes in the photosynthetic vitality index of the cells. However, a slight increase in phycobiliprotein synthesis is observed, which is related to total protein content. This change might be due to degradation of proteins less stable than phycobiliproteins. An identification of the proteins with altered expression pattern in the presence of the pesticide remains the subject of further work and will provide valuable information for the preparation of strains which are highly tolerant to lindane.
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cross section of the sample
energy flux for electron transport
- Fo, FM :
initial and maximum Chla fluorescence
- J, I:
intermediate steps of Chla fluorescence rise between Fo and peak (P)
- kN :
non-photochemical, de-excitation rate constant
- kp :
photochemical de-excitation rate constant
- ϕEO :
probability that an absorbed photon will move an electron into the electron transport chain
- ϕPo. :
maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry
- ψ0 :
efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain
- QA :
primary bound plastoquinone
- QB :
secondary bound plastoquinone
energy flux for trapping
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Bueno, M., Fillat, M.F., Strasser, R.J. et al. Effects of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacteriumanabaena . Environ Sci & Pollut Res 11, 98–106 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02979709
- Anabaena, cyanobacterium
- Chla fluorescence
- Core complexes of PS I and PS II
- ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase
- fluorescence induction studies
- PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer)
- stress adaptation