Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Development of damage function of acidification for terrestrial ecosystems based on the effect of aluminum toxicity on net primary production

Abstract

Background

Acidification is one of the important impact categories for life cycle impact assessment. Although its characterization has progressed during this decade through the employment of midpoint approaches, only limited studies of endpoint approaches have been performed. Objective. This study aimed at developing damage function of acidification for terrestrial ecosystems in Japan. Damage function expresses a quantitative relationship between the inventory and endpoint damage.

Methods

The geographical boundary was limited in Japan both for emission and impact. In this study, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (NO and NO2 collectively mean NOx), hydrogen chloride (HC1), and ammonia (NH3) were considered as major causative substances of acidification. Net primary production (NPP) of existing vegetation was adopted as an impact indicator of terrestrial ecosystems. The aluminum toxicity was adopted as the major factor of effect on terrestrial ecosystems due to acidification. The leachate concentration of monomeric inorganic aluminum ions was selected to express the plant toxicity of aluminum.

Results and Discussion

The results of damage function gave utilizable factors both for a midpoint approach and an endpoint approach; Atmospheric Deposition Factor (ADF) and Damage Factor (DF) applicable to the former and the latter, respectively. The ADF indicates an increase of H+ deposition per unit area to an additional emission of causative sustance. The additional emission corresponds to some alternatives in industry, not the baseline emission. The DF indicates the total NPP damage in all of Japan due to the additional emission of causative substances. The derived NPP damage is on the order of one millionth of the NPP itself. HC1 and NH3 showed larger ADFs and DFs than that of SO2 and NOx. The reason was ascribed to the relatively large source-receptor relationships (SRR) of HC1 and NH3. However, since the method applied to determine the SRR of HC1 and NH3 has larger uncertainties than that of SO2 and NOx, attention is needed to handle the difference.

Conclusion

The damage function easily defines the concrete NPP damage due to an additional emission. The impact indica tor, NPP, also has an advantage in its mass unit that is directly summable through the entire impact categories. Expansion of endpoints, such as in aquatic ecosystems, material degradation, human health, and biodiversity aspects of terrestrial ecosystems, is an important subject for future work. Further, uncertain analyses for major parameters will provide helpful information on the reliability of damage function.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

ADF:

Atmospheric Deposition Factor

AP:

Acidification Potential

Cl:

Category Indicator

DF:

Damage Factor

DI:

Damage Indicator

EF:

Effect Factor

LCA:

Life Cycle Assessment

LCIA:

Life Cycle Impact Assessment

LIME:

Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling

NDVI:

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

NNR:

Non-Neutrali-zation Ratio

NPP:

Net Primary Productivity

NSS:

Non-Sea Salt

SRR:

Source-Receptor Relationship

References

  1. Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center (2000): The Dataset of the Phase III of the Nationwide Survey for Acid Deposition. ADORC, Niigata, CD-ROM

  2. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Government of Japan (eds.) (2000): Synthetic Statistics of Energy for Fiscal Year 1999 (Jpn.). Tsusho-Sangyo-Kenkyusya, Tokyo, 357

  3. Batjes NH (1995): A Global Data Set of Soil pH Properties. Technical Paper 27, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Wageningen, 27p

  4. Center for Global Environmental Research (2000): Monthly NDVI in East Asia in 1997. CGER, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, CD-ROM

  5. Committee for Soil Classification and Nomenclature — Group of Japanese Pedologists (1990): Soil Map of Japan (1:1 Million). Naigai Mapping, Tokyo

  6. Cronan CS (1994): Aluminum Biogeochemistry in the ALBIOS Forest Ecosystems: the Role of Acidic Deposition in Aluminum Cycling. In: Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Processes (eds. Godbold DL and Hüttermann A), Wiley-Liss, 51–81

  7. Environmental Agency of Japan (1999): The Dataset for GIS on the Natural Environment, Japan (ver.2). Biodiversity Center of Japan, Fujiyoshida, CD-ROM

  8. FAO-UNESCO (1990): FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World. FAO, Rome

  9. Fujita S, Takahashi A, Hayami H, Sakurai T (2000): Wet Deposition of Nitrate and Ammonium over the Japanese Archipelago. Environ. Sci. 13, 491–501

  10. Goedkoop M, Spriensma R (2000): The Eco-indicator 99, A Damage Oriented Method for Life Cycle Impact Assessment, Methodology Report 2nd Edition. PRe Consultants, Amersfoort, 132 pp.

  11. Hauschild M, Wenzel H (1998): Environmental Assessment of Products. Volume 2: Scientific background, Chapman and Hall, London.

  12. Hayashi K, Itsubo N, Okazaki M, Inaba A (2000): Damage Function of Acidification for Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on EcoBalance, 253–256

  13. Heijungs R, Guinée J Huppes G, Lankreijer RM, Udo de Haes HA, Sleeswijk AW, Ansems AMM, Eggels PG, van Duin R, de Goede HP (1992): Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Products. Guide and Backgrounds. CML, Leiden University, Leiden

  14. Henrikson L, Hindar A, Thörnelöf E (1995): Freshwater Liming. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85, 131–142

  15. Hinrichsen D (1986): Multiple Pollutants and Forest Decline. Ambio 15, 258–265

  16. Holland M, Berry J, Forster D (1999): ExternE Externalities of Energy, Vol.7: Methodology 1998 Update. European Communities, Luxemburg, 535 pp.

  17. Huijbregts M (1999): Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Acidifying and Eutrophying Air Pollutants. Calculation of Equivalency Factors with RAINS-LCA. Interfaculty Department of Environmental Science, University of Amsterdam

  18. Ikeda Y, Higashino H (1997): The Estimation of Acid Deposition in East Asia (II) — Focused on the Ratio of Sources Contribution of the Deposition — J. Jpn. Soc. Atmos. Environ. 32, 175–186

  19. Inaba A, Itsubo N (2002): Development of LCIA Methodology Considering the Damages of Endpoints in LCA National Project of Japan. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on EcoBalance, 27–28

  20. Iwaki H (1981): Regional Distribution of Phytomass Resources in Japan (Jpn.). Environmental Information Science 10, 54–61

  21. Izuta T, Yamaoka T, Nakaji T, Yonekawa T, Yokoyama M, Matsumura H, Ishida S, Yazaki K, Funada R, Koike T (2001): Growth, Net Photosynthetic Rate, Nutrient Status and Secondary Xylem Anatomical Charac

  22. teristics of Fagus crenata Seedlings Grown in Brown Forest Soil Acidified with H2SO4 Solution. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 130, 1007–1012

  23. Jenny H (1961): Reflections on the Soil Acidity Merry-Go-Round. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 25, 428–432

  24. Japan Weather Association (1990): Guideline for Oceanographic Observation. JWA, Tokyo, 145 pp.

  25. Kannari A, Baba T, Hayami H (2001): Estimation of Ammonia Emissions in Japan. J. Jpn. Soc. Atmos. Environ. 36, 29–38

  26. Kitagawa Y (1996): Clay minerals of a podzolic soil in Sarufutsu, Hokkaido (Jpn.). Pedologist 10, 11–17

  27. Lee CH, Izuta T, Aoki M, Totsuka T (1997): Growth and Element Content of Red Pine Seedlings Grown in Brown Forest Soil Acidified by Adding H2SO4 Solution. J. Jpn. Soc. Atmos. Environ. 32, 46–57

  28. Lindeijer EW, van Kampen M, Fraanje PJ, van Dobben HF, Nabuurs GJ, Schouwenberg EPAG, Prins AH, Dankers N, Leopold MF (1998): Biodiversity and Life Support Indicators for Land Use Impacts in LCA. Publication Series Raw Materials 1998/07, Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft

  29. Meteorological Agency of Japan (1996): Meshed Statistics. Observation Normals of Meteorological Agency of Japan, Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, Tokyo, CD-ROM

  30. Maruyama A (1995): Soil Properties on Gentle and Steep Slopes Caused by the Differences in Lithology in the Mamurogawa Tertiary Region (Jpn.). Pedologist 39, 12–26

  31. Meiwes KJ (1995): Application of Lime and Wood Ash to Decrease Acidification of Forest Soils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85, 143–152

  32. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Government of Japan (2002): Information on the Numerical Land Information of Japan (Kokudo-Suchi-Joho)

  33. Nakagawa A, Ii R, Abe K, Hayashi K, Itsubo N, Inaba A (2002): Development of Life-Cycle Impact Assessment Method for Land Use — Construction of the Framework of the Method and Calculation of the Damage Factors by NPP — Environmental Systems Research 30, 109–118

  34. Nakaminami H (2000): Consideration of Transportation and Emission Control of Sulfur Compounds in East Asia — Centering the Emission Control in China — (Jpn.). Master thesis of the graduate school of Environment Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University

  35. National Forestry Research Institute of Japan (1968): Pictures of Profiles of Forest Soils 2 (Jpn.). NFRI, 84 pp.

  36. National Council of Urban Cleaning — Japan Waste Research Foundation (1999): Planning and Design Manual for Development of Waste Disposal and Treatment Facilities (Jpn.). JWRF, Tokyo, 138

  37. Okita T (1982): Science of Air Quality (Jpn.), Sangyo-Tosyo, Tokyo, 254 pp.

  38. Potting J, Schöpp W, Blok K, Hauschild M (1998): Site-Dependent Life-Cycle Impact Assessment of Acidification. J. Ind. Ecol. 2, 63–87

  39. Puxbaum H, Gregori M (1998): Seasonal and Annual Deposition Rates of Sulphur, Nitrogen and Chloride Species to an Oak Forest in North-Eastern Austria (Wolkersdorf, 240 m A.S.L.). Atmospheric Environment 32, 3557–3568

  40. Statistics Bureau, Government of Japan (eds.) (1998; 1999; 2000): Statistical Handbook of Japan. Japan Statistical Association, Tokyo

  41. Shigaki M (1998): Incineration Technology for Wastes 2nd edition (Jpn.), Ohmsha, Tokyo, 203 pp.

  42. Shioiri M (1934): Chemical Analysis of Clay in Aluminous Soil (Jpn.). Report of Science Association of Japan 10, 694–699

  43. So Y, Kodaira T, Okazaki M (1999): A Case Study on Effect of Acid Deposition on Japanese Cedar, Hinoki Cypress and Oak Trees in Kazusa Hill Region of Japan (Jpn.). Papers on Environmental Information Service 13, 263–268

  44. Steen B (1999): A Systematic Approach to Environmental Priority Strategies in Product Development (EPS) Version 2000 — Models and Data of the Default Method. CPM Report 1999:5, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 312 pp.

  45. Sverdrup H, Warfvinge P (1993): The effect of soil acidification on the growth of trees, grass and herbs as expressed by the (Ca+Mg+K)/Al ratio. Reports in ecology and environmental engineering 1993:2, Lund University, Lund, 177 pp.

  46. Takahashi A, Sato K, Wakamatsu T, Fujita S (2001): Atmospheric Deposition of Acidifying Components to a Japanese Cedar Forest. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 130, 559–564

  47. Thornthwaite CW (1948): An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate. Geogr. Rev. 38, 55–94

  48. Umemura H (1968): On the Podzolic soils of the central high-mountain region in Japan (Jpn.). Pedologist 12, 110–117

  49. Yamaya K (1968): Pedological studies on podzolized soils appearing in the mountainous region, northern Japan (Jpn.). Pedologist 12, 2–11

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Kentaro Hayashi or Masanori Okazaki or Norihiro Itsubo or Atsushi Inaba.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hayashi, K., Okazaki, M., Itsubo, N. et al. Development of damage function of acidification for terrestrial ecosystems based on the effect of aluminum toxicity on net primary production. Int J LCA 9, 13–22 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02978532

Download citation

Keywords

  • Acidification
  • acidifying substance
  • aluminum toxicity
  • causative substance
  • damage function
  • Japan
  • life cycle impact assessment
  • net primary productivity
  • terrestrial ecosystems