Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

An experimental study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet

  • 143 Accesses

  • 5 Citations


The flow and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet is investigated in two major stages. The first stage is about the investigation of the three dimensional mean flow and the turbulent flow quantities in free jet, stagnation and wall jet region. After a complete documentation of the flow field, the convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on the impingement plate are presented, during the second stage of the study. Heat transfer experiments using the new hue-capturing technique result in high resolution wall heating rate distributions. The technique is fully automated using a true color image processing system. The present heat transfer results are discussed in detail in terms of the flow characteristics. The measurements from the new method are compared with conventional heat flux sensors located on the same model. These heat transfer distributions are also compared with other studies available from the literature. The new non-intrusive heat transfer method is highly effective in obtaining high resolution heat transfer maps with good accuracy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


c :

Specific heat

D :

Jet nozzle diameter

H :

Distance between the nozzle exit and the impingement plate

h :

Convective heat transfer coefficient,h=q″/(T w T rec )

h′ :

Convective heat transfer coefficient,h′=q″/(T w T jmax)

k :

Thermal conductivity

l n :

Jet nozzle length

n :

Normal distance from the wall surface


National Television System Committee

Nu :

Nusselt number,Nu=hD/k

Nu′ :

Nusselt number,Nu′=h′D/k

q″ :

Heat flux,q″=−k f T/∂n


Radial coordinate

Re :

Reynolds number,ReU jmax D


Chiral nematic liquid crystal starting to respond at about 35°C with an approximate bandwidth of 1°C

T :

Static temperature

t :


U :

Mean velocity

u :

RMS value of the fluctuating velocity

x :

Axial coordinate


Thermal diffusivity of air, α=k/(ρc p )


Nondimensional time,\(\beta = h\sqrt t /\sqrt {\rho ck} \)




Normalized temperature, θ=(TT i )/(T recT i )


Normalized temperature, θ′=(TT i )/(T jmaxT i )





b :

Bulk mean

i :

Initial condition

j :

Jet exit condition


Maximum value

p :

At constant pressure


Recovery condition


Reference value

w :

Wall condition


Free stream value


  1. Amano, R.S., 1983, “Turbulence Effect on the Impinging Jet on a Flat Plate,” Bulletin of the JSME, Vol. 26, No. 221, pp. 1891–1899.

  2. Baughn, J.W., Ireland, P.T., Jones, T.V. and Saniei, N., 1988, “A Comparison of the Transient and Heated-Coating Methods for the Measurement of Local Heat Transfer Coefficients on a Pin Fin,” ASME Paper 88-GT-180.

  3. Camci, C., Kim, K. and Hippensteele, S.A., 1992, “A New Hue Capturing Technique for the Quantitative Interpretation of Liquid Crystal Images Used in Convective Heat Transfer Studies,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Turbomachinery. Vol. 114, pp. 765–775.

  4. Downs, S.J. and James, F.H., 1987, “Jet Impingement Heat Transfer-A Literature Survey,” ASME Paper 87-HT-35.

  5. Gardon, R. and Akfirat, J.C., 1965, “The Role of Turbulence in Determining the Heat-Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Jets,” Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 8, pp. 1261–1272.

  6. Gardon, R. and Cobonpue, J., 1962, “Heat Transfer between a Flat Plate and Jets of Air Impinging on It,” International Developments in Heat Transfer, pp. 454–460, ASME, New York.

  7. Goldstein, R.J. and Behbahani, A.I., 1982, “Impingement of a Circular Jet with and without Cross Flow,” Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 25, pp. 1377–1382.

  8. Goldstein, R.J., Sobolik, K.A. and Seol, W.W., 1990, “Effect of Entrainment on the Heat Transfer to a Heated Circular Air Jet Impinging on a Flat Surface,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 112, pp. 608–611.

  9. Hrycak, P., 1983, “Heat Transfer from Round Impinging Jets to a Flat Plate,” Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 26, pp. 1857–1865.

  10. Jones, J.J., 1959, “Shock Tube Heat Transfer Measurements on inner Surface of a Cylinder (Simulating a Flat Plate) for Stagnation Temperature Range 4100 to 8300°R,” NASA TN-D-54.

  11. Kline, S.J. and McClintock, F.A., 1953, “Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 75, pp. 3–8.

  12. Martin, H., 1977, “Heat and Mass Transfer between Impinging Gas Jets and Solid Surfaces,” Advances in Heat Transfer, Vol. 13, pp. 1–60.

  13. Obot, N.T., Majumdar, A.S. and Douglas, W.J. M., 1979, “The Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Impingement Heat Transfer under a Round Turbulent Jet,” ASME Paper 79 WA/HT-53.

  14. Schultz, D.L. and Jones, T.V., 1973, “Heat Transfer Measurements in Short Duration Hypersonic Facilities,” AGARD-AG-165.

  15. Sparrow, E.M., Goldstein, R.J. and Rouf, M.A., 1975, “Effect of Nozzle-Surface Separation Distance on Impingement Heat Transfer for a Jet in a Crossflow,” Trans. of the ASME. J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 97, pp. 528–533.

  16. Striegl, S.A. and Diller, T.E., 1984a. “An Ansalysis of the Effect of Entrainment Temperature on Jet Impingement Heat Transfer,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 106, pp. 804–810.

  17. Striegl, S.A. and Diller, T.E., 1984b, “The Effect of Entrainment Temperature on Jet Impingement Heat Transfer,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 106, pp. 27–33.

  18. Treaster, A.L. and Yocum, A.M., 1979, “The Calibration and Application of Five Hole Probes,” ISA Transactions, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 23–34.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Kui-Soon Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kim, K. An experimental study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet. KSME Journal 7, 258–271 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02970970

Download citation

Key Words

  • Impinging Jet
  • Convection
  • Liquid Crystal
  • Image Processing