Breast cancer is thought to develope as an estrogen-dependent tumor. Approximately 30% of breast cancers can be treated by agents that block estrogen. However, all breast cancers have been known to acquire the hormone therapy-resistant phenotype with ultimate fatal results. Recent progress in breast cancer research has provided the important clues for elucidating the molecular mechanism of this conversion. The presence of the cross-talk between estrogen signaling and other mitogen-dependent signaling has been clarified at the estrogen receptor level. In addition, an estrogen-dependent transcriptional control mechanism has been characterized in detail. These breakthrough and the development of a pure antiestrogen would make it possible to consider the more sophisticated hormone therapy. In this review article, I summarized the current findings which seem to be essential in the treatment of breast cancer.
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CREB binding protein
Estrogen responsive element
Transforming growth factor
Epidermal growth factor
Fibroblast growth factor
- IGF 1:
Insulin-like growth factor 1
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Sato, B. The molecular mechanism underlying the acquisition of the antiestrogen-resistant phenotype in breast cancer. Breast Cancer 5, 25 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02967412
- Estrogen action
- Cyclin D1
- Growth factors
- Hormone resistance