Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Carboniferous lepidodendraceae and lepidocarpaceae

  • 76 Accesses

  • 31 Citations

Summary

The Carboniferous arborescent lycopods were the largest and most specialized members of this group, having developed from the simpler Devonian forms described asLepidodendropsis. The changes of external morphology and internal anatomy show that the plants belonging to the Lepidodendraceae had determinate growth patterns. Mature trees had tall trunks with crowns of dichotomously branched shoots. Their shallow, dichotomizing rooting systems are rhizophores calledStigmaria. The plants were heterosporous, having terminal cones on their ultimate branches. These cones are either included within the Lepidodendraceae, or referred to the Lepidocarpaceae if they possessed only one functional megaspore within each megasporangium. The Lepidocarpaceae therefore is a family of megasporangiate cones which were most probably borne on shoots belonging to the Lepidodendraceae. The two families were most common in the Upper Carboniferous of the equatorial Euramerican province, although they also lived in the Cathaysian flora of China and Southeast Asia. Plant compression and dispersed spore assemblages indicate that the Lepidodendraceae grew in the coal basin swamps although in more than one type of plant community.

Résumé

Dans cette catégorie, les lycopodes arborescent Carbonifères étaient les plantes les plus grandes et les plus évoluées, s’étant développés à partir de simples formes Dévoniennes que l’on appelleLepidodendropsis. Les changements de leur morphologie externe et de leur anatomie interne montrent que les plantes appartenant au groupe des Lepidodendraceae avaient un système de croissance défini. Parvenus à leur maturité les arbres présentaient un long tronc et une couronne de branches dichotomes. Leurs systèmes de racines dichotomes, peu profonds, étaient des rhizophores appelésStigmaria. Les plantes étaient hétérospores. A l’extrèmité de leurs branches les plus hautes se trouvaient des cônes qui faisaient partie soit du groupe des Lepidodendraceae soit du group des Lepidocarpaceae s’ils ne possédaient qu’une seule mégaspore fonctionnelle dans chaque mégasporange. Les Lepidocarpaceae sont donc une famille de cônes mégasporanges qui proviennent très probablement de pousses appartenant aux Lepidodendraceae. On trouvait les deux familles très fréquemment dans la période des Carbonifère Supérieurs dans la région équatoriale Euroaméricaine bien qu’on puisse aussi les trouver dans la flore de la Chine et de l’Asie du Sud Est. Les assemblages de compressions et de spores dispersées indiquent que les Lepidodendraceae poussaient dans les bassins charbon des marais bien que probablement repartis dans differentes communautis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbott, M. L. 1963. Lycopod fructifications from the Upper Freeport (No. 7) Coal in southeastern Ohio. Palaeontographica 112B: 93–118.

  2. Allen, K. C. 1961.Lepidostrobophyllum fimbriatum (Kidston, 1883) from the Drybrook Sandstone (Lower Carboniferous). Geol. Mag. 98: 225–9.

  3. Andrews, H. N. 1961. Studies in Palaeobotany. New York.

  4. Andrews, H. N. andW. H. Murdy. 1958.Lepidophloios — and ontogeny in arborescent lycopods. Am. J. Bot. 45: 552–60.

  5. Andrews, H. N. andE. Pannell. 1942. Contributions to our knowledge of American Carboniferous Floras IILepidocarpon. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gdn. 29: 19–34.

  6. Arber, A. 1914. An anatomical study of the Palaeozoic cone genusLepidostrobus. Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 205–38.

  7. Arber, A. 1922. Critical Studies of Coal Measure Plant-impressions. 1. A Revision of the British Upper Carboniferous Species of the GenusLepidostrobus Brongn., preserved as incrustations. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 46: 171–88.

  8. Arnold, C. A. 1947. An introduction to palaeobotany. New York.

  9. Artis, E. T. 1825. Antidiluvian Phytology. London.

  10. Balbach, M. K. 1962. Observations on the Ontogeny ofLepidocarpon. Am. J. Bot. 49: 984–9.

  11. Balbach, M. K. 1965. Paleozoic Lycopsid Fructifications. 1.Lepidocarpon Petrifactions. Am. J. Bot. 52: 317–30.

  12. Balbach, M. K. 1966. Paleozoic Lycopsid Fructifications. 11.Lepidostrobus takhtajanii in North America and Great Britain. Am. J. Bot. 53: 275–83.

  13. Balbach, M. K. 1966. Microspore variation inLepidostrobus and comparison withLycospora. Micropalaeontology 12: 334–42.

  14. Balbach, M. K. 1967. Paleozoic Lycopsid Fructifications. III. Conspecificity of British and North AmericanLepidostrobus Petrifactions. Am. J. Bot. 54: 867–75.

  15. Banks, H. P. 1960. Notes on Devonian Lycopods. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 41: 59–88.

  16. Barghoorn, E. S. andR. A. Scott. 1958. Degradation of the plant cell wall and its relation to certain tracheary features of the Lepidodendrales. Am. J. Bot. 45: 222–7.

  17. Bassler, H. 1919. A sporangiophoric lepidophyte from the Carboniferous. Bot. Gaz. 68: 73–108.

  18. Baxter, R. W. 1959. The sporangium ofCystosporites varius. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 62: 47–52.

  19. Baxter, R. W. 1965. The growth habit ofLepidodendron serratum Felix. The Palaeobotanist 14: 1–4.

  20. Beck, C. B. 1958.Levicaulis arranensis gen. et sp. nov., a lycopsid axis from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland. Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb. 58: 444–57.

  21. Bierhorst, D. W. 1971. Morphology of vascular plants. New York and London.

  22. Bohlin, B. 1971. Late Palaeozoic Plants from Yuerhhung, Kansu, China. The Sino-Swedish Expedition Publication 51. Stockholm.

  23. Boulter, M. C. 1968. A species of compressed lycopod sporophyll from the upper coal measures of Somerset. Palaeontology 11: 445–57.

  24. Brack, S. D. 1970. On a new structurally preserved arborescent lycopsid fructification from the lower Pennsylvanian of North America. Am. J. Bot. 57: 317–30.

  25. Brongniart, A. 1822. Sur la classification et la distribution des végétaux fossiles en général et sur ceux des terrains de sédiment supérieur en particulier. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8: 203–348.

  26. Brongniart, A. 1828–38. Histoire des végétaux fossiles ou recherches botanique et géologique sur les végétaux renfermés dans les diverses couches du globe. I (1828-36) 1–488; II (1836–37) 1–72.

  27. Brongniart, A. 1839. Observations sur la structure intérieure duSigillaria elegans comparée à celle desLepidodendron et desStigmaria, et à celle des végétaux vivants. Arch. Mus. Hist. nat. I: 405–61.

  28. Butterworth, M. A. 1964. Die Vertleigung derDensosporites sphaerotriangularis im Westfal B der westpenninschen Steinkohlenfelder Englands. Fortschr. Geol. Rheinld. u. Westf. 12: 317–30.

  29. Campo, J. D. 1925. A new specimen ofLepidostrobus foliaceus. Bot. Gaz. 79: 441–9.

  30. Camithers, W. 1869. On the plant remains from the Brazilian Coal beds, with remarks on the genusFlemingites. Geol. Mag. London 6: 151–6.

  31. Chaloner, W. G. 1952. OnLepidocarpon waltoni sp. nov. from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 12: 572–82.

  32. Chaloner, W. G. 1953a. On the Megaspores of four Species ofLepidostrobus. Ann. Bot. Lond. 17: 264–73.

  33. Chaloner, W. G. 1953b. A new species ofLepidostrobus containing unusual spores. Geol. Mag. Lond. 40: 97–110.

  34. Chaloner, W. G. 1958.Polysporia mirabilis Newberry, a fossil lycopod cone. J. Paleo. 32: 199–209.

  35. Chaloner, W. G. 1961. Palaeo-ecological data from Carboniferous spores. Recent Advances in Botany 1961: 980–3.

  36. Chaloner, W. G. 1967.In: E. Boureau. Traité de Paléobotanique 2 Lycophyta 435–802. Paris.

  37. Chaloner, W. G. 1968. The cone ofCyclostigma kiltorkense Haughton, from the Upper Devonian of Ireland. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 61: 25–36.

  38. Chaloner, W. G. andG. T. Greber. 1974. Growth rings in fossil woods as evidence of past climates.In: D. H. Tarling and S. K. Runcorn (eds.) Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, 1, Academic Press, London, 425–37.

  39. Chaloner, W. G. andW. S. Lacey. 1973. The distribution of late Palaeozoic floras. Special Papers in Palaeontology 12: 271–89.

  40. Chaloner, W. G. and S. V. Meyen. 1973. Carboniferous and Permian Floras of the Northern Continents.In: A. Hallam (ed.). Atlas of Palaeobiogeography 169–86. Amsterdam, London and New York.

  41. Coulter, I. M. andW. J. G. Land. 1911. An AmericanLepidostrobus. Bot. Gaz. 51: 449–53.

  42. Coulter, J. M. andW. J. G. Land. 1921. A homosporous AmericanLepidostrobus. Bot. Gaz. 72: 106–8.

  43. Cridland, A. A. 1964.Amyelon in American coal-balls. Palaeontology 7: 186–209.

  44. Danzé-Corsin, P. 1958. Nouvelle classification des Lépidophytes du Primaire connues en empreints. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 247: 1226–9.

  45. Danzé-Corsin, P. 1960.In: G. Cogney and P. Danzé-Corsin. Les Conglomérats du Bas Oued Bou-Regreg et la flore du Carbonifère Inférieur du Jebel Bakach, Région de Rabat (Maroc). Trav. Inst. scient. chérif. (Geol. Geogr. Phys.) No. 8: 5–52.

  46. Darrah, W. C. 1941. The fossil flora of Iowa coal balls. IV,Lepidocarpon. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 5: 85–100.

  47. Darrah, W. C. 1949. Palaeozoic Lepidodendroid embryos. Paleo. Not. 2: 1–28. (Published privately: Mass., U.S.A.)

  48. Darrah, W. C. 1952. The materials and methods of Paleobotany. The Palaeobotanist 1: 145–53.

  49. Davies, D. 1920. Distribution of the different species of flora and fauna from the Westphalian and part of the Staffordian Series of Clydach Vale and Gilfach Goch, East Glamorganshire. Trans. Inst. Min. Eng. 59: 183–221.

  50. Davies, D. 1921. Ecology of the Westphalian and the Lower Part of the Staffordian Series of Clydach Vale and Gilfach Goch. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. 77: 30–74.

  51. Davies, D. 1929. Correlation and Palaeontology of the Coal Measures in East Glamorganshire. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 217: 91–153.

  52. Drägert, K. 1964. Pflanzensoziologische Untersuchungen in den Mittleren Essener Schichten des nördlichen Ruhrgebietes. Forsch. Ber. Landes N. Rhein-Westf. 1363, 295 pp.

  53. Eggert, D. A. 1961. The Ontogeny of the Carboniferous Arborescent Lycopsida. Palaeontographica B, 108: 43–92.

  54. Eggert, D. A. andN. Y. Kanemoto. 1977. Stem phloem of a middle PennsylvanianLepidodendron. Bot. Gaz. 138: 102–111.

  55. Felix, C. J. 1954. Some American Arborescent Lycopod Fructifications. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 41: 351–94.

  56. Felix, C. J. 1952. A Study of the Arborescent Lycopods of Southeastern Kansas. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 41: 263–88.

  57. Frankenberg, J. M. andD. A. Eggert. 1969. PetrifiedStigmaria from North America: Part 1.Stigmaria ficoides, the underground portions of Lepidodendraceae. Palaeontographica B, 128: 1–47.

  58. Fry, W. L. 1954. A Study of the Carboniferous LycopodPaurodendron gen. nov. Amer. J. Bot. 41: 415–28.

  59. Galtier, J. 1964. Sur le gamétophyte femelle des Lepidodendracées. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 258: 2625–8.

  60. Galtier, J. 1965. Sur la flore fossile et l’age gisement d’Esnost près d’Autun. L’Eduen-Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat., Autun. 33: 10–14.

  61. Galtier, J. 1970. Observations nouvelles sur le gamétophyte femelle des Lepidodendracées. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 271: 1495–7.

  62. Goldenberg, F. 1855–62. Flora Saraeopontana fossilis. I, 1855; II, 1857; III, 1862.

  63. Gordon, W. T. 1908. On the prothallus ofLepidodendron veltheimianum. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 23: 330–2.

  64. Gordon, W. T. 1910. Note on the prothallus ofLepidodendron veltheimianum. Ann. Bot. 24: 821–2.

  65. Graham, R. 1935. An anatomical study of the leaves of the Carboniferous arborescent lycopods. Ann. Bot. 49: 587–608.

  66. Greguss, P. 1961. Ramification ofSigillaria andLepidodendron and the telome theory. Phytomorphology 11: 243–8.

  67. Grierson, J. D. andH. P. Banks. 1963. Lycopods of the Devonian of New York State. Palaeontographica Americana 4: 217–95.

  68. Habib, D. andP. K. H. Groth. 1967. Paleoecology of migrating Carboniferous peat environments. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 3: 185–95.

  69. Haughton, S. 1859. OnCyclostigma, a new genus of fossil plants from the Old Red Sandstone of Kiltorcan Co. Kilkenny. J. Roy. Soc. Dublin 2: 407–20.

  70. Havlena, V. 1961. Die Flöznahe und Flözfermde Flora des Oberschlesischen. Namurs A und B. Palaeontographica, B. 108: 22–38.

  71. Hickling, H. G. A. andC. E. Marshall. 1933. The microstructure of the coal of certain fossil tree barks. Trans. Inst. Min. Engineers 86: 65–75.

  72. Hill, T. G. 1906. On the presence of a parichnos in recent plants. Ann. Bot. 20: 267–73.

  73. Hirmer, M. 1927. Handbuch der Paläobotanik. München and Berlin.

  74. Hopping, C. A. 1956. A note on the leaf cushion of a species of Palaeozoic arborescent Lycopod (=Sublepidophloiosventricosus sp. nov.) Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. B 66: 1–9.

  75. Hueber, F. M. andH. P. Banks. 1967.Psilophyton princeps: The Search for Organic Connection. Taxon 16: 81–5.

  76. Jongmans, W. J. 1913–37. Fossilium Catalogus (Plantae). Lyopodiales. I, 1913; II, 1929; III, 1930; IV, 1932; V, 1936; VI, 1937.

  77. Jongmans, W. 1954. The Carboniferous Flora of Peru. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol.) 2: 191–223.

  78. Jongmans, W., W. Gothan andW. C. Darrah. 1937. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Flora der Pocono Schichten aus Pennsylvanien und Virginia. C. R. 2 Cong. Avanc. Et. Stratigr. Carbonifère (Heerlen, 1935) 1: 423–44.

  79. Jonker, F. P. 1976. The Carboniferous “Genera”Ulodendron andHalonia — an assessment. Palaeontographica B 157: 97–111.

  80. Josten, K. H. 1961. Pfanzensoziologische Beobachtungen an Steinkohlenbohrungen im Ruhrgebiet. Palaeontographica B 108: 39–42.

  81. Keller, G. 1972. Beitrag zur Paläosoziologie der Oberkarbonflora im Ruhrgebiet. Paläont. Z. 46: 242–50.

  82. Kidston, R. 1901. Carboniferous lycopods and sphenophylls. Trans. nat. hist. soc. Glasgow 6: 25–140.

  83. Kirch, M. H. 1913. The Physiological Anatomy of the Periderm of Fossil Lycopods. Ann. Bot. 27: 281–320.

  84. Kremp, G. 1952. Sporen-vergesellschaftungen und microfaunenhorizonte im Ruhrkarbon. C. R. 3 Congrès Strat. Geol. Carbonifère Heerlen 1: 347–57.

  85. Lacey, W. S. 1962. Welsh Lower Carboniferous Plants. I. The Flora of the Lower Brown Limestone in the Vale of Clwyd, North Wales. Palaeontographica IIB: 126–61.

  86. Leisman, G. A. andR. L. Rivers. 1974. On the reproductive organs ofLepidodendron serratum Felix. C. R. 7 Congrès Strat. Geol. Carbonifère Krefeld (1971) 3: 351–65.

  87. Leisman, G. A. andP. A. Spohn. 1961. The structure of aLepidocarpon strobilus from southeastern Kansas. Palaeontographica B III: 113–25.

  88. Lejal, A. 1969. Étude des Sublepidodendraceae du Djado (Sahara Oriental). The Palaeobotanist 17: 137–51.

  89. Lemoigne, Y. 1962. Etude de la bifurcation d’un rameau chez leLepidodendron selaginoides (Sternberg). Bull. de la Soc. bot. Fr. 109: 5–13.

  90. Lemoigne, Y. 1963a. Structure de l’écorce interne des appendices desStigmaria des Lycopodiales arborescentes du Paléozoique. C. R. Acad. Sc. 256: 2891–3.

  91. Lemoigne, Y. 1963b. Les appendices radiculaires desStigmaria des Lycopodiales arborescent du Paléozoique. Ann. Sci. Nat. bot. biol. véget. 12, 4, 751–74.

  92. Lemoigne, Y. 1964. Reconnaissance du phloème et d’un cambium particulier les axes des formes Lépidodendroides arborescentes du Paléozoique. C. R. Acad. Sc. 259: 2265–8.

  93. Lemoigne, Y. 1966. Les tissus vasculaires et leur histogenèse chez les Lépidophytales arborescentes du Paléozoique. Ann. Sci. Nat. bot. biol. véget. 12, 7, 445–74.

  94. Lemoigne, Y. 1967. Le cortex et son mistogenese chez les Lépidophytales arborescent du Paléozoique. Ann. Sci. Nat. bot. biol. véget. 12, 8, 747–76.

  95. Lindley, J. and W. Hutton. 1833–7. The Fossil Flora of Great Britain. London.

  96. Long, A. G. 1968. Some specimens ofMazocarpon, Achlamydocarpon andCystosporites from the lower Carboniferous of Berwickshire. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 67: 359–72.

  97. Lutz, J. 1933. Zur Kulmflora von Geigen bei Hof. Palaeontographica B 78: 114–57.

  98. MacGregor, M. andJ. Walton, 1948. The story of the Fossil Grove. City of Glasgow Public Parks and Botanic Gardens Department, Glasgow.

  99. Maslen, A. J. 1899. The structure ofLepidostrobus. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2, Bot. 5, 357–77.

  100. Mathews, G. B. 1940. New Lepidostrobi from central United States. Bot. Gaz. 102: 26–49.

  101. Mensah, M. K. andW. G. Chaloner. 1971. Lower Carboniferous lycopods from Ghana. Palaeontology 14: 357–69.

  102. Meyen, S. V. 1972. Are there ligula and parichos in Angara Carboniferous lepidophytes? Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 14: 149–57.

  103. Meyen, S. V. 1957. Paleobotanical taxonomy and nomenclature. The need for a new approach. Taxon 24: 251–4.

  104. Meyen, S. V. 1976. Carboniferous and Permian Lepidophytes of Angaraland. Palaeontographica B 157: 112–57.

  105. Neaves, R. 1958. Upper Carboniferous plant spore assemblages from theGastrioceras subcrenatum horizon, North Staffordshire. Geol. Mag. 95: 1–19.

  106. North, F. J. 1935. The fossils and geological history of the South Wales Coal Measures (some aspects of the work of the late David Davies). Proc. S. Wales Inst. Engrs. 51: 271–300.

  107. Oshurkova, M. V. 1967. Paleophytological validation of the stratigraphy of the upper suites of the Carboniferous deposits in the Karaganda Basin. Izd-vo Nauka, Leningrad, 150 pp. (In Russian.)

  108. Paolillo, D. I. 1963. The developmental anatomy ofIsoetes. Illinois Biol. Monogr. 31: 1–130.

  109. Peppers, R. A. and H. W. Pfefferkorn. 1970. A comparison of the floras of the Colchester (No. 2) coal and Francis Creek shale.In: W. H. Smith et al., Depositional environments in parts of the Carbondale formation — Western and Northern Illinois. Illinois State Geol. Surv. Guide Series 8: 61–74.

  110. Pfefferkorn, H. W., H. Mustafa andH. Hass. 1975. Quantitative charakterisierung ober-Karboner abdruckfloren. N. jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 150: 253–69.

  111. Phillips, T. L., M. J. Avcin and I. M. Schopf. 1975. Gametophytes and Young Sporophyte Development inLepidocarpon. Botanical Society of America Abstract of Papers (17–22 August 1975) p. 23.

  112. Phillips, T. L., H. W. Pfefferkorn andR. A. Peppers. 1973. Development of Paleobotany in the Illinois Basin. Illinois Geol. Surv. Circ. 408: 1–86.

  113. Piérart, P. 1961a. L’Evolution de la megaspore. Bull. Soc. r. Bot. Belg. 93: 7–26.

  114. Piérart, P. 1961b. Les megaspores du houiller de Kaiping — Chine. Mededel. geol. stichting. 13, 39–44.

  115. Potonié, H. 1921. Lehrbuch der Paläobotanik. Aufl. von Gothan W.

  116. Potonié, R. 1962. Synopsis der Sporae in situ. Beih. Geol. Jb. 52: 1–204.

  117. Potonié, R. 1965. Fossiles sporae in situ vergleicht mit den sporae dispersae nachtrag zur synopsis der in situ. Forrehungsber land. Nordrhein. Westfalen 1483: 5–74.

  118. Potonié, R. 1967. Versuch der einordnung der fossilen sporae dispersae in das phylogenetische system der pflanzenfamilien. Westdeutscher verlag-koeln und opladen. 1: 1–310.

  119. Ramanujam, C. G. K. andW. N. Stewart 1969. ALepidocarpon cone tip from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Palaeontographica B. 127: 159–67.

  120. Read, C. B. 1947. Pennsylvanian floral zones and floral provinces. J. Geol. 55: 271–9.

  121. Read, C. B. andS. H. Mamay. 1964. Upper Paleozoic floral zones and floral provinces of the United States. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 454 K: 1–35.

  122. Renault, B. 1906. Sur une nouvelle Lycopodiacée houillère (Lycopodiopsis derbyi). C. R. Acad. Sci. 110: 809–11.

  123. Renault, B. 1906. Bassin houillère et permien d’Autun et d’Epinac, flore fossile, pt. 2. Étude des Gîtes minéraux de la France IV, 1–578 (Atlas 1893).

  124. Rhode, J. G. 1820–3. Beiträge zur Pflanzenkunde der Vorwelt, nach Abdrucken im Kohlenschiefer und Sandstein aus schlesischen Steinkohlenwerken I–II, 1–40.

  125. Schopf, J. M. 1938. Two Lycopod seeds from the Illinois Pennsylvanian. Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. 30: 139–46.

  126. Schopf, J. M. 1941. Notes on the Lepidocarpaceae. Ill. Geol. Surv. Circ. 73: 548–63.

  127. Schopf, J. M. 1974. Coal, climate and global tectonics. In: D. H. Tarling and S. K. Runcorn (eds.), Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, 1, Academic Press, London, 609–22.

  128. Schopf, J. M., L. R. Wilson andR. Bentall. 1944. An annotated synopsis of Palaeozoic Fossil Spores and the Definition of Generic Groups. Rep. Invest. Ill. Geol. Surv. 91: 1–74.

  129. Schumaker-Lambrey, J. 1966. Étude d’un cône de Lepidocarpaceae du houiller belge:Achlamydocarpon belgicum gen. et sp. nov. Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg. cl. Sci. 17: 8–27.

  130. Schweitzer, H. J. 1965. UberBergeria mimerensis undProtolepidodendropsis pulchra aus dem Devon Westspitzbergens. Palaeontographica B 115: 117–38.

  131. Schweitzer, H. J. 1969. Die Oberdevon-flora der Bareninsel. 2, Lycopodinae. Palaeontographica B 126: 101–37.

  132. Scott, A. 1977. A review of the ecology of Upper Carboniferous plant assemblages, with new data from Strathclyde. Palaeontology 20: 447–73.

  133. Scott, D. H. 1900. Note on the occurrence of a seed-like fructification in certain Palaeozoic lycopods. Proc. R. Soc. London 67: 306–9.

  134. Scott, D. H. 1901. On the structure and affinities of fossil plants from the Palaeozoic rocks-4, The seed-like fructifications ofLepidocarpon. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 194B: 291–333.

  135. Scott, D. H. 1920. Studies in fossil botany. London.

  136. Sen, J. 1958. Notes on the spores of four Carboniferous Lycopods. Micropaleontology 4: 159–64.

  137. Seward, A. C. 1899. Notes on the Binney Collection of Coal-Measure Plants, 1,Lepidophloios. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 10.

  138. Seward, A. C. 1902. On the so-called phloem ofLepidodendron. N. Phytol. 1: 38–46.

  139. Seward, A. C. 1910. Fossil Plants. Vol. II. Cambridge.

  140. Smith, A. H. V. 1957. The sequence of microspore assemblages associated with the occurrence of crassidurite in coal seams of Yorkshire. Geol. Mag. 94: 345–63.

  141. Smith, A. H. V. 1962. The Palaeoecology of Carboniferous Peats based on the Miospores and Petrography of Bituminous Coals. Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc. 33: 423–74.

  142. Smith, A. H. V. 1964. Palaeoecology of Carboniferous peats. Problems in Palaeoclimatology. Proc. Nato. Palaeoclimates Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Univ., London, New York and Sydney.

  143. Smith, A. H. V. 1968. Seam profiles and seam characters. Coal and Coal-bearing Strata. Edinburgh.

  144. Smith, D. L. 1964. Secondary cortex in the arborescent lycopods. N. Phytol. 63: 418–21.

  145. Snigirevskaya, N. S. 1958. Anatomical investigations of fossil leaves (phylloids) of certain Lycopsida in coal balls of the Donetz Basin coalfields. (in Russian). Bot. Zhurnal., Acad. Nauk. USSR. 43: 106–12.

  146. Solms-Laubach, H. Graf zu. 1891. Fossil botany. Clarendon, Oxford.

  147. Sternberg, G. K. 1820–38. Versuch einer geognotischen botanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. Leipzig & Prague.

  148. Stewart, W. N. 1947. A comparative study of Stigmarian appendages andIsoetes roots. Amer. J. Bot. 45: 315–24.

  149. Susta, V. 1924. Lepidodendron a opádávaní. Polštářků jeho kůry. Rozpr. C. Akad. Voed. Urn., cl. mat. nat. 33/41: 1–6.

  150. Sze, H. C. 1952. Upper Devonian plants from China. Acta Scientia Sinica 1: 166–92.

  151. Taylor, T. N. andS. D. Brack-Hanes. 1976.Achlamydocarpon varius comb. nov.: Morphology and reproductive biology. Amer. J. Bot. 63: 1257–65.

  152. Taylor, T. N. &D. A. Eggert. 1968. Petrified plants from the Upper Mississippian of North America. IILepidostrobus fayette-villense sp. nov. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 306–13.

  153. Teichmüller, M. 1952. Vergleichende mikroskopische Untersuchungen versteinerter Torfe des Ruhrkarbons und der daraus entstandenen Steinkohlen. C. R. 3 Cong. Adv. étud. Strat. Geol. Carbonif. Heerlen 1951, 2: 607–13.

  154. Teichmüller, M. andR. Teichmüller. 1968. Cainzoic and Mesozoic Coal Deposits of Germany.In: D. G. Murchison and T. S. Westoll (eds.). Coal and Coal Bearing Strata. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 347–79.

  155. Thomas, B. A. 1966. The Cuticle of the Lepidendroid stem. N. Phytol. 65: 296–303.

  156. Thomas, B. A. 1967.Ulodendron Lindley and Hutton and its cuticle. Ann. Bot. 31: 775–82.

  157. Thomas, B. A. 1968. A revision of the Carboniferous lycopodEskdalia. Palaeontology 11: 439–44.

  158. Thomas, B. A. 1970a. A new specimen ofLepidostrobus binneyanus from the Westphalian B of Yorkshire. Pollen et Spores 12: 217–34.

  159. Thomas, B. A. 1970b. Epidermal studies in the interpretation ofLepidodendron species. Palaeontology 13: 145–73.

  160. Thomas, B. A. 1974. The lepidodendroid stoma. Palaeontology 17: 525–39.

  161. Thomas, B. A. 1977. Epidermal studies in the interpretation ofLepidophloios species. Palaeontology 20: 273–93.

  162. Thomas, B. A. andJ. Watson. 1976. A rediscovered 114-footLepidodendron from Bolton, Lancashire. Geol. J. 11: 15–20.

  163. Thomson, P. W. 1950. Grundsätzliches zur tertiären Pollen- und Sporen-mikrostratigraphie auf Grund einer Untersuchung des Hauptflözes der rheinischen Braunkohle in Liblar, Neurath, Fortuna und Brühl. Geol. Jb. 65: 113–26.

  164. Walton, J. 1925-6. A note on the structure of the plant cuticles in the paper-coal from Toula in Central Russia. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 70: 119–23.

  165. Walton, J. 1935. Scottish Lower Carboniferous Plants: the fossil hollow trees of Arran and their branches (Lepidophloios Wuenschianus Carruthers). Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 58: 313–37.

  166. Weiss, C. E. 1901. On the phloem ofLepidophloios andLepidodendron. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 45: 7: 1–22.

  167. Weiss, C. E. 1907. The Parichnos in the Lepidodendraceae. Mem. Proc. Manchr. li. phil. Soc. 51: 1–22.

  168. Wesley, A. andB. Kuyper. 1951. Electron microscopic observation on the xylem elements of a fossil ppant. Nature 168 (4265): 137–40.

  169. Williamson, W. C. 1871. OnStigmaria. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 10: 116–8.

  170. Williamson, W. C. 1872. On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal-Measures. 3, Lycopodiaceae. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 162: 283–318.

  171. Williamson, W. C. 1883. On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal-Measures. 12, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 174: 459–75.

  172. Williamson, W. C. 1887. A monograph on the morphology and histology ofStigmaria ficoides. Palaeont. Soc. Lond. 40: 1–62.

  173. Williamson, W. C. 1895. On the light thrown upon the question of growth and development of the Carboniferous arborescent Lycopodendra by a study of the details of their organisation. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 9: 31–65.

  174. Wilson, J. A. R. 1930/1). Some new facts about the structure of the cuticles in the Russian paper coal and their bearing on the systematic position of some fossil Lycopodiales. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. 51: 104–14.

  175. Witham, H. 1833. The internal structure of fossil Vegetables found in the Carboniferous and Colitic deposits of Great Britain.

  176. Zeiller, R. 1884. Cones de fructification des Sigillaries. Ann. Sci. nat. 19: 256–80.

  177. Zeiller, R. 1909. Observations sur leLepidostrobus Brownii Bron. sp. C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sc, Paris 148: 890–6.

  178. Zeiller, R. 1914. Etude sur leLepidostrobus Brownii (Unger) Schimper. Mém. Acad. Sci. Paris. ser. 2, 52: 1–67.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Barry A. Thomas.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Thomas, B.A. Carboniferous lepidodendraceae and lepidocarpaceae. Bot. Rev 44, 321–364 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02957853

Download citation

Keywords

  • Coal Seam
  • Botanical Review
  • Stem Genus
  • Leafy Shoot
  • Leaf Scar