Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Real-time tension control in a multi-stand rolling system

  • 431 Accesses

  • 15 Citations


The problem of real-time tension control in a metal-strip processing line is addressed. The tension in a metal strip changes due to not only the speed difference but also thickness changes at the ends of a span. The mathematical dynamic model which describes relationship between the tension change and the roll-speed change is improved to include the effect of the strip thickness change on tension variation. Through the computer simulation of this model. the parameter sensitivity analysis and the static and dynamic characteristic study are carried out. The tension variation in a metal strip turned out to be very sensitive to the thickness variation as well as to the speed difference at the ends of the metal strip. In the rolling process, the master speed drive is usually located at the last stand. The speeds of rollers in upstream stands are adjusted with respect to the speed of the last stand to compensate the speed change for the tension regulation. A new tension control strategy in a multi-stand rolling process is suggested. The tension transfer phenomena is used in the design of the suggested controller. The developed mathematical model is used to design a controller for the real-time control system. A set of requirements for the real-time tension control is suggested. Based on the requirements, a real-time software for the tension control in a multi-stand system is designed and real-time simulation was carried out by using the Vx Works real-time scheduler and the Force Target board. The cancellation mechanism of the roll gap control due to the tension interaction is clearly defined by using the mathematical model derived in this study. It is confirmed that the suggested control strategy needs less control efforts and shows better performance than those of the existing control method in a rolling process.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


A :

Cross-sectional area of strip

E :

Modulus of clasticity

L :

Length of strip span

h io :

Steady-state value of strip thickness

H i :

Change in strip thickness from a steady-state operating value

h i :

Strip thickness (=h io+H i)

K s :

Equivalent stand spring constant

p :

Rolling force

P i :

Change in rolling force from a steady-state operating value

R :

Radius of roll or roller

S :

Change in roll gap from a steady-state operating value

t io :

Steady-state value of strip lension

T i :

Change in strip tension from a steady-state operating value

t i :

Strip tension (=t io+T i)

U :

Control value

v io :

Steady state operating value of strip speed

V i :

Change in strip speed from a steady-state operating value

v i :

Strip speed (=v io+V i)


Strain of metal strip


Steady-state operating condition

i :

1, 2, 3, 4…


  1. Bass, G. V., 1987, “Minimum Tension Control in Finishing Train of Hot Strip Mills,”Iron and Steel Engineer, Nov. pp. 48–53.

  2. Bland, D. R. and Ford, H., 1948, “The Calculation of Roll Force and Torque in Cold Strip Rolling with Tensions”Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng, Vol. 159, pp. 144–153.

  3. Gerald P. Vandenberg ed., 1990, “Thickness Control at Dofasco's No. 2 Hot Strip Mill,”Iron and Steel Engineer, Nov., pp. 17–24.

  4. Grimble, M. J., 1976, “Tension Controls in Strip Processing Lines,”Metals Technology, Oct. pp. 446–453.

  5. Ogata, Katsuhiko, 1990,Modern Control Engineering, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., pp. 776–795.

  6. Puscher, P. and Koza, C. H., 1989, “Calculating the Maximum Execution Time of Real-Time Program,”The Journal of Real-Time System, Kluwer Academic Pub., Netheriands.

  7. Shin, K. H., Kim, K. B., An. H. S., Hong, W. K., 1993, “Thickness Control in Metal-strip Milling Process,”Proc. of KACC, pp. 1141–1146.

  8. Shin. K. H., 1991,Distributed Control of the Tension in Multi-Span Web Transport Systems, Ph. D. Thesis, Oklahoma State Univ., May.

  9. Shin, K. H. and Hong, W. K., 1994, “Real-Time Tension Control in a Multi-span Continuous Process System,”Proc. of KACC, Vol. 1. pp. 136–141.

  10. Vladimir B. Ginzburg. 1993,High-Quality Steel Rolling, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp. 162–163, 175–248.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shin, K., Hong, W. Real-time tension control in a multi-stand rolling system. KSME International Journal 12, 12–21 (1998).

Download citation

Key Words

  • Rolling System
  • Tension Control
  • Tension Transfer
  • Real-Time System
  • Mathematical Model
  • Automatic Gauge Control