Methods for the determination of aflatoxins in paprika, peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste and baby food were developed. The methods employ an immunoaffinity cleanup step and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. All steps of the analysis were tested for their suitability for all matrices with focus on method robustness, simplicity, toxicology, environment, and user friendliness. Extraction procedures, chromatographic separation and post column derivatisation techniques were elaborated for this purpose. The methods were statistically validated in collaborative trials at currently established legal limits for aflatoxins and are in the process for adoption as official methods by CEN and AOAC.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Commission Directive 98/1525/EC of 16th July 1999 amending Directive 97/194/EC on anatoxins in food and Commission Directive 1999/39/EC of 6 May 1999 amending Directive 96/5/EC on processed cereal-based foods and infant formulae for infants and young children, Official Journal of the European Communities LI24/8
Boenke A (1998) Method validation for mycotoxin determination in food and feedstuffs. Trends in anal chem 17: 10–16
European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) (1996) Documents prEN-ISO 15141-1 and prEN-ISO 15141-2 on Food analysis, Horizontal methods - Mycotoxins, Brussels, Belgium
IUPAC (1995) Protocol for the Design, Conduct and Interpretation of Method- Performance. Pure & Applied Chem. 67: 331–343
Patey AL, Sharman M, Gilbert J (1991) Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Allatoxin Levels in Peanut Butter Using an Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup Method: International Collaborative Trial. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 74: 76–81
Trucksess MW, Stack ME, Nesheim S, Page SW, Albert RH, Hansen TJ, Donahue KF (1991) Immunoaffinity Column coupled with Solution Fluorimetry or Liquid Chromatography Post-column Derivatization for Determination of Anatoxins in Corn [Maize], Peanuts and Peanut Butter: Collaborative Study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 74: 81 - 88
Van Egmond HP, Heisterkamp SH, Paulsch WE (1991) EC-collaborative study on the determination of allatoxin B1 in animal feeding-stuffs. Food Addit and Contain 8: 17–29
Naumann C, Bassler R (1997) Die chemische Untersuchung von Futtermitteln - Bestimmung von Aflatoxin Bl, Methodenbuch. Band III Erg 1997 Section 16.1.4; VDLUFA-Verlag Darmstadt Germany
Apergi E, Gardikis JP, Panagiotopoulou VY (1996) Occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Imported Goods in Greece, During 1995, In-house publication (General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece, Athens)
Sharman M, Gilbert J (1991) Automated allatoxin analysis of food and animal feeds using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination. J Chromatogr 543: 220–225
Ganer CR, Whattam MM, Taylor PJL, Stow M (1993) Analysis of United Kingdom spices for allatoxins using an immunoaffinity column clean-up procedure followed by -performance liquid chromatographic analysis and post-column derivatisation with pyridinium bromide perbromide. J Chromatogr 648:485–490
Werner G (1991) Bestimmung der Aflatoxine in Futtermitteln nach selektiver Reinigung an ciner Immunoaffinitactssaeule. Agribiological Research 44: 289- 298
Kok WTh, van Neer ThCH, Traag WA, Tuinstra LGMTh (1986) Determination of allatoxins in cattle feed by liquid chromatography and post-column derivatization with electrochemically generated bromine. J Chromatogr 367: 231–236
Bradburn N, Coker RD, Blunden G (1995) A comparative study of solvent extraction efficiency and the performance of immunoaffinity and solid phase columns on the determination of aflatoxin B1. Food Chem 52: 179–185
Bradburn N, Coker DR, Jewers K, Tomlins IK (1990) Evaluation of the ability of different concentrations of aqueous acetone, aqueous methanol and aqueous acetone:melhanol (1:1) to extract aflatoxin from naturally contaminated maize. Chromatographia 29: 435–440
Chang HHL, De Fries JW, Hobbs WE (1979) Comparative study of two methods for extraction of aflatoxin from peanut meat and peanut butter. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 62: 1281–1284
Crosby NT (1984) Review of current and future analytical methods for the determination of inycotoxins. Addit and Contam 1: 39–44
Yin L (1969) Note on acetonitrile as an extracting solvent for aflatoxins. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 52: 880
Stroka J, Joerissen U, Petz M, Anklam E (1999) Investigation of various extractants for the analysis of aflatoxin B1 in different food and feed matrices. Addit and Contam 16: 331–338
Scott PM, Trucksess MW (1997) Application of Immunoaffinity Columns to Mycotoxin Analysis. J AOAC Int 80: 941–949
Sydenham EW, Shephard GS (1996) Chromatographic and allied methods of analysis for selected mycotoxins in: Progress in Food Contaminant Analysis. Gilbert, J. (Edr), pp.69–71
Horwitz W, Kamps LR, Boyer KW (1980) Quality Assurance in the Analysis of Foods for Trace Constituents. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 63: 1344–1354
Horwitz W (1983) Today’s Chemical Realities. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 66: 1295- 1301
Huber W (1991) Nachweis- Erfassung- und Bestimmungsgrenze: Definition und Bedeutung. Nachr Chem Tech Lab 39: 1007–1011
Oppenheimer L, Capizzi ThP, Weppelmann RM, Mehta H (1983) Determining the lowest limit of reliable assay measurement. Anal Chem 55: 638–643
Foley JP and Dorsey JG (1984) Clarification of the limit of detection in chromatography. Chromatographia 18: 503–511
Knoll JE (1985) Estimation of the limit of detection in chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 23: 422–425
Haedrich J (1993) Zur Ableitung der Nachweisgrenze und Bestimmungsgrenze nach dem Eichkurvenverfahren. Teil l:Deutsche Lebensm Rundsch 89: 35–42, Teil 2: Deutsche Lebensm Rundsch 89: 72-80 Teil 3: Deutsche Lebensm Rundsch 89: 286-289
Hayashi Y, Matsuda R, Poe RB (1996) Measurement precision and 1/f noise in analytical instruments. J Chromatogr A, 722: 157–167.
Haedrich J, Vogelgesang J (1996) Konzept ’96 zur Ermiltlung von Nachweis-, Erfassungs- und Bestimmungsgrenze, Deutsche Lebensm Rundsch. 92: 341–350.
‘Kalibo’ und ‘Valido’, Software packages distributed by: Juergen Vogelgesang, European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, Brussels, Belgium.
‘LabStat’, Software package distributed by: Analytik Software, Leer, Germany.
‘Methoden-Validierung in der Analytik (MVA)’, Software package distributed by: NOVIA GmbH, Saarbruecken, Germany.
Dorner JW, Cole R.T (1988) Rapid determination of aflatoxins in raw peanuts by liquid chromatography with post column iodination and modified mini column cleanup. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 71: 43–47
Traag WA, van Trijp JMP, Tuinslra LGMTh (1987) Sample clean-up and post- column derivatization for the determinatioon of aflatoxin B1 in feedstuffs by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 396: 389–394
Stroka J, von-Holst C, Anklam E, Niedwetzki G, Schroeder A, Joerissen U (1999) Preparation and homogeneity testing of various materials (peanut butter, pistachios, figs and paprika) for a collaborative trial study concerning the determination of aflatoxins. EUR19004 EN
Stroka J, Anklam E, Niedwetzki G, Schroeder A, Joerissen U (1999) Preparation and homogeneity testing of baby food (infant formula) material for a collaborative trial study on the determination of aflatoxin B1. EUR 19003 EN
van Trijp JMP, Roos AH (1991) Model for the calculation of calibration curves. RIKILT Report 91.02 RIKILT-DLO Wageningen The Netherlands
Stroka J, Joerissen U, Gilbert J, Anklam E (2000) Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup with Liquid Chromatography using Post-column Bromination for Determination of Ailatoxins in Peanut Butter, Pistachio Paste, Fig Paste, and Paprika Powder: Collaborative Study. J AOAC Int (in press)
About this article
Cite this article
Stroka, J., Petz, M. & Anklam, E. Analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in various food matrices at concentrations regarding the limits set in european regulations: development, characteristics, limits. Mycotox Res 16, 23–42 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02946103
- Infant Formula
- Peanut Butter
- Mycotoxin Research
- Aqueous Acetone