Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

oodOPT: A semantics-based concurrency control framework for fully-replicated architecture


Concurrency control has always been one of the most important issues in the design of synchronous groupware systems with fully-replicated architecture. An ideal strategy should be able to support natural and flexible human-to-computer and human-to-human interactions while maintaining the consistency of the system. This paper summarizes previous researches on this topic and points out the deficiencies of the existing results. A novel semantics-based concurrency control framework,oodOPT, is proposed. The main idea of the framework is to resolve conflicts by utilizing semantics of the operations and the accessed data objects. With this approach, complexities in concurrency control are shifted completely from application developers to the framework. Conflicts among operations on objects with different semantics and the strategies resolving these conflicts are analyzed. After describing the algorithm in full detail, the discussion ends up with a comparison with other related work and some considerations for open problems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. [1]

    Ellis C A, Gibbs S J, Rein G L. Groupware: Some issues and experiences.Communication of ACM, 1991, 34(1): 39–58.

  2. [2]

    Greenberg S, Marwood D. Real time groupware as a distributed system: Concurrency control and its effect on the interface. InProc. ACM Conf. CSCW, Chapel Hill, 1994, pp. 207–217.

  3. [3]

    Ellis C A, Gibbs S J. Concurrency control in groupware systems. InProc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Mgmt of Data, Seattle, 1989, pp. 399–407.

  4. [4]

    Yang Guangxin. Research on meta-groupware—The Cova programming language and system [dissertation]. Tsinghua University, Beijing, 2000.

  5. [5]

    Yang Guangxin, Shi Meilin. Cova: A programming language for cooperative applications.Science in China, Series F, 2001, 44(1): 73–80.

  6. [6]

    Suleiman M, Cart M, Ferrie J. Serialization of concurrent operations in a distributed collaborative environment. InProc. ACM SIGGROUP Conf. Supporting Group Work, Phoenix, 1997, pp. 435–445.

  7. [7]

    Ressel M, Nitsche-Ruhland D, Gunzenhauser R. An integrating, transformation-oriented approach to concurrency control and undo in group editors. InProc. ACM Conf. CSCW, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 288–297.

  8. [8]

    Sun C Z, Ellis C. Operational transformation in real-time group editors: Issues, algorithms, and achievements. InProc. ACM Conf. CSCW, Seattle, 1998, pp 59–68.

  9. [9]

    Sun C Z, Jia X H, Zhang Y Cet al. A generic operation transformation scheme for consistency maintenance in real-time cooperative editing systems. InProc. ACM SIGGROUP Conf. Supporting Group Work, Phoenix, 1997, pp. 425–434.

  10. [10]

    Palmer C R, Cormack G V. Operation transforms for a distributed shared spreadsheet. InProc. ACM Conf. CSCW, Seattle, 1998, pp. 69–78.

  11. [11]

    Cattell R G G, Barry D, Bartels Det al. The object database standard: ODMG 2.0. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1997.

  12. [12]

    Muson J, Dewan P. A concurrency control framework for collaborative systems InProc. ACM Conf. CSCW, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 278–287.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Guangxin Yang.

Additional information

The work was supported by the National Natural, Science Foundation of China under grant No. 69773029 and the National ‘863’ High-Tech Programme of China (Nos.863-306-ZD-10-2B, 863-306-ZD-02-03-1).

YANG Guangxin was born in 1973 and got his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Tsinghua University in 1996, 1998, 2000 respectively. His major research interests focus on CSCW, groupware, workflow management, etc. He is currently a technical staff member at Bell-Labs Research China.

SHI Meilin was born in 1938 and got his B.S. degree in computer science in 1962 from Tsinghua University. His major research interests focus on computer network and CSCW. He is currently a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Technology of Tsinghua University.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yang, G., Shi, M. oodOPT: A semantics-based concurrency control framework for fully-replicated architecture. J. Comput. Sci. & Technol. 16, 531–543 (2001).

Download citation


  • computer supported cooperative work
  • groupware
  • concurrency control
  • oodOPT
  • Cova