COMPUTERS PROVIDE FRESH OPPORTUNITIES for enhancing and understanding collaborative learning. They permit new research methodologies such as simulations of cooperating agents, and they present new design challenges including computerized peers and supporting collaborations across cultural boundaries. This article has two goals. One goal is to offer recent examples and findings that may help design computer-supported collaboration. The other is to begin a theoretical discussion that focuses on the individuals who collaborate. This differs from much of the collaborative and cooperative learning literature that emphasizes the rules and structures for enforcing collaboration (e.g., group roles and joint accountability). We start with individuals, because we believe that much of the learning that occurs during collaboration develops out of individuals’ efforts to share meaning and understand one another. We consider prerequisites to people’s effort to share meaning, and we particularly focus on the important role of the productive agency that leads people to contribute rather than just borrow knowledge. We consider the type of knowledge likely to develop during collaboration, and we suggest ways to prepare and help people learn from the language that permeates collaborations as well as formal classroom lectures and texts.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Daniel L. Schwartz is an Associate Professor in the School of Education, Stanford University. He serves in the Psychological Studies in Education program and the Learning, Design, and Technology program. His research explores how people move from untutored mental models to more formal understanding in the domains of mathematics and science. In addition to laboratory and computer-modeling methodologies, Dr. Schwartz creates technology-based interventions to study and foster classroom learning. A theme throughout Dr. Schwartz’s research is how people’s facility for spatial thinking can inform and influence the processes of learning, instruction, assessment and problem solving. He finds that multimedia technologies make it possible to exploit spatial representations and activities in fundamentally new ways, offering an exciting complement to the verbal approaches that dominate educational research and practice. He is currently designing and testing instructional methods and software that can be used in traditional and innovative classrooms.
Xiaodong Lin is an Assistant Professor of Education and Technology at Department of Teaching and Learning, Vanderbilt University. Dr. Lin studies metacognition and problem solving, and the ways that cultural interactions with the help of technology can facilitate understanding and personal reflection. She develops technology-rich learning environments and explores how such environments influence cross-cultural collaboration and reflection. She finds that technologies make it possible for teachers and students from different cultures to collaborate in fundamentally new ways. This offers exciting opportunities for metacognitive awareness. Her most recent research explores the creation of Virtual Learning Environments that permit teachers from different cultures to collaborate. She hopes that these studies will lead to design principles that can transform the obstacles of geographical and cultural distance into new opportunities for learning.
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Schwartz, D.L., Lin, X. Computers, productive agency, and the effort after shared meaning. J. Comput. High. Educ. 12, 3–33 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02940954
- collaborative learning
- small group research
- cultural exchange
- distributed artificial intelligence