Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Ablative spinal cord surgery for the treatment of chronic pain

Abstract

Percutaneous cordotomy can be a successful short-term procedure if performed by an experienced neurosurgeon. The procedure should be reserved for patients with intractable pain secondary to malignant disease that is resistant to conservative treatment and pain that is not of a dysesthetic type. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesions can be highly effective in eliminating certain previously intractable pain syndromes by eliminating the pathologic discharge of neurons in the dorsal horn following injury. DREZ surgery is of proven value in treating pain following brachial plexus avulsion injury and certain pain syndromes following spinal cord injury. DREZ lesions are less effective in treating postherpetic pain along with a higher prevalence of postoperative neurologic deficits, which may be due to the advanced age of patients suffering from this condition. This article reviews various aspects of anterolateral cordotomy and DREZ lesioning.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Recommanded Reading

  1. 1.

    Meheler WR, Feferman ME, Mauta WJH:Ascending axon degeneration following antero-lateral cordotomy: an experimental study in monkey.Brain 1960,83:718–750. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  2. 2.

    Noordenbos W, Wall PD:Diverse sensory functions with an almost totally divided spinal cord: a case of spinal cord transection with preservation of one anterolateral quadrant.Pain 1976,2:185–195. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  3. 3.

    White JC, Sweet WH:Pain and the Neurosurgeon. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1969: 678–749.

  4. 4.

    Gildenberg PL:Myelotomy and percutaneous cervical cordotomy for the treatment of cancer pain.Appl Neurophysiol 1984,47:208–215. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  5. 5.

    Levin AB, Cosman ER:Thermocouple-monitored cordotomy electrode.Neurosurg 1982,53:266–268.

  6. 6.

    Onofrio BM:Cervical spinal cord and dentate delineation in percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy at the level of the first to second cervical vertebrae.Surg Gynecol Obstet 1971,133:30–34. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  7. 7.

    Taren JA, Davis R, Crosby EC:Target physiologic corroboration in stereotaxic cervical cordotomy.J Neurosurg 1969,30:569–584. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  8. 8.

    Tasker RR:Percutaneous cervical cordotomy.Appl Neurol-Physiol 1976,39:114–121.

  9. 9.

    Lahuerta J, Bowsher D, Lipton S, Buxton PH:Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: a review of 181 operations on 146 patients with a study on the location of “pain fibers” in the C-2 spinal cord segment of 29 cases.J Neurosurg 1994,80:975–985. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  10. 10.

    Tasker RR:Percutaneous cordotomy.In InFunctional Neurosurgery. New York: Raven Press; 1979: 1595–1611.

  11. 11.

    Fenstermaker RA, Sternau LL, Takaoka Y:CT-assisted percutaneous anterior cordotomy: technical note.Surg Neurol 1995,43:147–150. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  12. 12.

    Rosomoff HL:Percutaneous spinothalamic cordotomy for pain relief.In InNeurosurgery. Edited by Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996: 4055–4060.

  13. 13.

    Di Piero V, Jones AKP, Iannotti F,et al.:Chronic pain: a PET study of the central effects of percutaneous high cervical cordotomy.Pain 1991,46:9–12. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  14. 14.

    Tasker RR:The merits of percutaneous cordotomy over the open operation.In InCurrent Controversies in Neurosurgery. Edited by Morley TP. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1976: 496–501.

  15. 15.

    Sherman IC, Arieff AJ:Dissociation between pain and temperature in spinal cord lesions.J Nerv Ment Dis 1948,108:285–292.

  16. 16.

    Stookey B:Human chordotomy to abolish pain sense without destroying temperature sense.J Nerv Ment Dis 1929,69:552–557.

  17. 17.

    Lahuerta J, Bowsher D, Campbell J, Lipton S:Clinical and instrumental evaluation of sensory function before and after percutaneous anterolateral cordotomy at cervical level in man.Pain 1990,42:23–30. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  18. 18.

    Tasker RR:Percutaneous cordotomy: the lateral high cervical technique.In InOperative Neurosurgical Techniques, Indications, Methods, and Results. Edited by Schmidek HH, Sweet WH. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1982: 1137–1153.

  19. 19.

    Meglio M, Cioni B:The role of percutaneous cordotomy in the treatment of chronic cancer pain.Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1981,59:111–121. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  20. 20.

    White JC:Cordotomy: assessment of its effectiveness and suggestions for its improvement.Clin Neurosurg 1966,13:1–19.

  21. 21.

    White JC, Sweet WH:Anterolateral cordotomy: open versus closed comparison of end results.In InAdvances in Pain Research and Therapy. Edited by Bonica JJ. New York: Raven Press; 1979: 911–920.

  22. 22.

    Frankel SA, Prokop JD:Value of cordotomy for relief of pain.N Engl J Med 1961,264:971–974. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  23. 23.

    Nathan PW:Reference of sensation at the spinal level.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1956,19:88–100.

  24. 24.

    Rosomoff HL:Stereotaxic cordotomy.In InNeurological Surgery. Edited by Youmans JR. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1982: 3672–3685.

  25. 25.

    Cowie RA, Hitchcock ER:The late results of anterolateral cordotomy for pain relief.Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1982,64:39–50. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  26. 26.

    Kanpolat Y, Deda H, Akyar S, Caglar S:C.T.-guided pain procedures.Neurochirurgie 1990,36:394–398. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  27. 27.

    French LA:High cervical tractotomy: technique and results.Clin Neurosurg 1973,21:239–245.

  28. 28.

    Rosomoff HL:Percutaneous radiofrequency cervical cordotomy for intractable pain.Adv Neurol 1974,4:683–688.

  29. 29.

    Lorenz R:Methods of percutaneous spinothalamic tract section.In InAdvances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery. Edited by Krayenbuhl H, Vienna: Springer-Verlag; 1976: 123–145.

  30. 30.

    Nathan PW:Results of anterolateral cordotomy for pain in cancer.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1963,26:353–362.

  31. 31.

    Ischia S, Luzzani A, Ischia A,et al.:Bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy: immediate and long term results in 36 patients with neoplastic disease.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984,47:141–147. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  32. 32.

    Lipton S:Percutaneous cervical cordotomy.Acta Anaesth Belg 1981,32:81–85. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  33. 33.

    Amano K, Kawamura H, Tanikawa T,et al.:Bilateral versus unilateral percutaneous high cervical cordotomy as a surgical method of pain relief.Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1991,52:143–145. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  34. 34.

    Rosomoff HL:Bilateral percutaneous cervical radiofrequency cordotomy.J Neurosurg 1969,31:41–46. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  35. 35.

    Diemath HE, Heppner F, Walker AE:Anterolateral cordotomy for relief of pain.Postgrad Med 1961,29:485–495. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  36. 36.

    Probst C:Microsurgical cordotomy in 20 patients with epi-intradural fibrosis following operation for lumbar disc herniation.Acta Neurochirurgica 1990,107:30–36. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  37. 37.

    Jack TM, Lloyd JW:Long-term efficacy of surgical cordotomy in intractable non-maligant pain.Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1983,65:97–102. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  38. 38.

    White JC:Anterolateral cordotomy: its effectiveness in relieving pain of non-malignant disease.Neurochirurgia 1963,6:83–102.

  39. 39.

    Belmusto L, Brown E, Owens G:Clinical observations on respiratory and vasomotor disturbance as related to cervical cordotomies.J Neurosurg 1963,20:225–232. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  40. 40.

    McKissock W:Spinothalamic cordotomy: reassessment of effectiveness and limitations.Excerpta Med 1961,36:27.

  41. 41.

    Porter RW, Hohmann GW, Bors E,et al.:Cordotomy for pain following equina injury.Arch Surg 1966,92: 765–770. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  42. 42.

    Piscol K:Open spinal surgery for intractable pain.Adv Neurosurg 1975,3: 157–169.

  43. 43.

    Wetzel FT:Chronic benign cervical pain syndromes: surgical considerations.Spine 1992,10 (suppl): S367-S374.

  44. 44.

    Sjoquist O:Surgical section of pain tracts and pathways in the spinal cord and brain stem.Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of Neurology 1949,1: 119–132.

  45. 15.

    Ischia S, Luzzani A, Maffezoli GF,et al.:Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: technical considerations and results in 400 treated cases.In Pain Therapy. Edited by Rizzi R, Visentin M. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press; 1983: 367–379.

  46. 46.

    Schwartz HG:High cervical cordotomy technique and results.Clin Neurosurg 1962,8: 282–293. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  47. 47.

    Tasker RR:Open cordotomy.Prog Neurol Surg 1977,8: 1–14.

  48. 48.

    Koulousakis A, Nittner K:Bilateral C1–2 cordotomies: can complications be avoided? Appl Neurophysiol 1982,45: 500–503. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  49. 49.

    Lahuerta J, Lipton S, Wells JCD:Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: results and complications in a recent series of 100 patients.Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1985,67: 41–44. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  50. 50.

    Chou SN, French LA, Story JTL:The relief of pain of cancer by cordotomy.Prog Clin Cancer 1966,2: 135–142.

  51. 51.

    Bowsher D:Contralateral mirror-image pain following anterolateral cordotomy.Pain 1988,33: 63–65. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  52. 52.

    Nagaro T, Kimura S, Arai T:A mechanism of new pain following cordotomy: reference of sensation.Pain 1987,30: 89–91. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  53. 53.

    Ischia S, Luzzani A, Ischia A, Pacini L:Role of unilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy in the treatment of neoplastic vertebral pain.Pain 1984,19: 123–131. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  54. 54.

    Ischia S, Ischia J, Luzzani A,et al.:Results up to death in the treatment of persistent cervico-thoracic (Pancoast) and thoracic malignant pain by unilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy.Pain 1985,21: 339–355. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  55. 55.

    Ischia S, Luzzani A, Ischia A,et al.:Subarachnoid neurolytic block (L5-S1) and unilateral percutaneous cervical cordoto my in the treatment of pain secondary to pelvic malignant disease.Pain 1984,20: 139–149. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  56. 56.

    Mullan S, Harper PV, Hekmatpanah J,et al.:Percutaneous interruption of spinal-pain tracts by means of a strontium 90 needle.J Neurosurg 1963,20: 931–939. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  57. 57.

    Grant FC, Wood FA:Experience with cordotomy.Clin Neurosurg 1958,5: 38–65.

  58. 58.

    Nathan PW, Smith MC:Long descending tracts in man. I. Review of present knowledge.Brain 1955,78: 248–303. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  59. 59.

    Nathan PW, Smith MC:The Babinski response: a review and new observations.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1955,18: 250–259.

  60. 60.

    Belmusto L, Woldring S, Owens G:Localization and patterns of potentials of respiratory pathway in cervical cord in the dog.J Neurosurg 1965,22: 277–283.

  61. 61.

    Rosomoff HL, Krieger AJ, Kuperman AS:Effects of percutaneous cervical cordotomy on pulmonary function.J Neurosurg 1969,31: 620–627. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  62. 62.

    Nathan PW:The descending respiratory pathway in man.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1963,26: 487–499. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  63. 63.

    Hitchcock E, Leece B:Somatotropic representation of respiratory pathways in the cervical cord of man.J Neurosurg 1967,27: 320–329. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  64. 64.

    Wells CJ, Lipton S, Lahuerta J:Respiratory depression after percutaneous cervical anterolateral cordotomy in patients on slow-release oral morphine.Lancet 1984,i: 739.

  65. 35.

    Gybels JW, Sweet WH:Open anterolateral cordotomy and percutaneous anterolateral cordotomy.In Neurosurgical Treatment of Persistent Pain. Edited by Gildenberg PhL. Basel: Karger: 1989: 151–179.

  66. 66.

    Tenicela R, Rosomoff HL, Feist J,et al.:Pulmonary function following percutaneous cervical cordotomy.Anesthesiology 1968,29: 7–16. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  67. 67.

    Fox JL:Localization of respiratory pathway in upper cervical spinal cord following percutaneous cordotomy.Neurology (Minn) 1969,19: 1115–1118.

  68. 68.

    Gybels JM, Sweet WH:Physiological and pathological mechanisms of human pain.In InNeurosurgical Treatment of Persistent Pain. Edited by Gildenberg PhL, Basel: Karger; 1989: 132–146.

  69. 69.

    Mansuy L, Sindou M, Fischer G, Brunon J:Spinothalamic cordotomy in cancerous pain: results of a series of 124 patients operated on by a direct posterior approach.Neurochirurgica 1976,22: 432–444.

  70. 70.

    Krieger AJ, Rosomoff HL:Sleep-induced apnea. Part 1: respiratory and autonomic syndrome following bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy.J Neurosurg 1974,40: 168–180. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  71. 71.

    Long DM, Story JL:Hyponatremia following bilateral cervical cordotomy.J Neurosurg 1966,25: 623–627. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  72. 72.

    Sanders M, Zuurmond W:Safety of unilateral and bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy in 80 terminally ill cancer patients.J Clin Oncol 1995,13: 1509–1512. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  73. 73.

    Kuhner A:La cordotomie percutanee sa place actuella dans la chirurgie de la douleur.Anesth Analg (Paris) 1981,38: 357–359. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  74. 74.

    Brihaye J, Thirg S, LeClericq R:Le traitement chirurgical de la doulor.Acta Chir Belg Suppl 1962,2: 255–475.

  75. 75.

    Johnson DA, Roth GM, Craig WMcK:Orthostatic hypotension following cordotomy for intractable pain.Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 1952,27: 131–135.

  76. 76.

    Stookey B:The management of intractable pain by cordotomy.Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1943,23: 416–433.

  77. 77.

    Loeser JD, Ward AA:Some effects of deafferentation on neurons of the cat spinal cord.Arch Neurol 1967,17: 629–636. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  78. 78.

    Loeser JD, Ward AA, White LE:Chronic deafferentation of human spinal cord neurons.J Neurosurg 1968,29: 48–50. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  79. 79.

    Nashold BS, Urban B, Zorub DS:Phanton pain relief by focal destruction of substantia gelatinosa of Rolando.In InAdvances in Pain Research and Therapy. Edited by Bonica JJ, Albe-Fessard D. New York: Raven Press; 1976: 959–963.

  80. 80.

    Chen HJ:Dorsal root entry zone lesions in the treatment of pain following brachial plexus avulsion and herpes zoster.J Formosan Med Assoc 1992,91: 508–512. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  81. 81.

    Iacono RP, Aguirre ML, Nashold BS:Anatomic examination of human dorsal root entry zone lesions.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 225–229. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  82. 82.

    Sindou M, Quoex C, Baleydier C:Fiber organization at the posterior spinal cord-rootlet junction in man.J Comp Neurol 1974,153: 15–26. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  83. 83.

    Sindou M, Goutelle A:Surgical posterior rhizotomies for the treatment of pain.In InAdvances in Techniques and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery. Edited by Krayenbuhl H. Wein: Springer-Verlag: 1983: 147–185.

  84. 84.

    Denny-Brown D, Kirk EF, Yanagisawa N:The tract of Lissauer in relation to sensory transmission in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in the Macaque monkey.J Comp Neurol 1973,151: 175–200. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  85. 85.

    Kerr FWL:Neuroanatomical substrates of nociception in the spinal cord.Pain 1975,1: 325–356. ▸ View thePub Med notation for this reference.

  86. 86.

    Snyder R:The organization of the dorsal root entry zone in cats and monkeys.J Comp Neurol 1977,174: 47–70.

  87. 87.

    Sindou M:Microsurgical DREZotomy (MDT) for pain, spasticity, and hyperactive bladder: a 20-year experience.Acta Neurochir 1995,137: 1–5.

  88. 88.

    Moossy JJ, Nashold BS, Osborne D, Friedman AH:Conus medullaris nerve root avulsions.J Neurosurg 1987,66: 835–841. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  89. 89.

    Young RF:Clinical experience with radiofrequency and laser DREZ lesions.J Neurosurg 1990,72: 715–720. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  90. 90.

    Nashold BS, Sampson JH, Nashold JRB,et al.:Dorsal root entry zone lesioning for pain relief.In InNeurosurgery. Edited by Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996: 4035–4046.

  91. 91.

    Cosman ER, Rittman WJ, Nashold BS,et al.:Radiofrequency lesion generation and its effect on tissue impedance.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 230–242. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  92. 92.

    Chen HJ:Measurement of tissue impedance in dorsal root entry zone surgery for pain after brachial plexus avulsion and herpes zoster.Clin J Pain 1991,7: 323–329. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  93. 93.

    Fazl M, Houlden DA, Kis Z:Spinal cord mapping with evoked responses for accurate localization of the dorsal root entry zone.J Neurosurg 1995,82: 587–591. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  94. 94.

    Levy WJ, Nutkiewicz A, Ditmore QM,et al.:Laser-induced dorsal root entry zone lesions for pain control: report of three cases.J Neurosurg 1983,59: 884–886. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  95. 95.

    Levy WJ, Gallo C, Watts C:Comparison of laser and radiofrequency dorsal root entry zone lesions in cats.Neurosurgery 1985,16: 327–330. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  96. 96.

    Powers SK, Barbaro NM, Levy RM:Pain control with laser-produced dorsal root entry zone lesions.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 243–254. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  97. 97.

    Sindou M, Fischer G, Mansuy L:Posterior spinal rhizotomy and selective posterior rhizidiotomy.In InProgress in Neurological Surgery. Edited by Krayenbuhl H, Maspes PE, Sweet WH. Basel: Karger; 1976: 201–250.

  98. 98.

    Willis WD, Coggeshall RE:Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord. New York: Plenum Press; 1991.

  99. 99.

    Woolf CJ, King AE:Dynamic alterations in the cutaneous mechanoreceptive fields of dorsal horn neurons in the rat spinal cord.J Neurosci 1990,10: 2717–2726. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  100. 100.

    Dreval ON:Ultrasonic DREZ-operations for treatment of pain due to brachial plexus avulsion.Acta Neurochir (Wein) 1993,122: 76–81. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  101. 101.

    Bonney G:Prognosis in traction lesions of the brachial plexus.J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1959,41B: 4–35.

  102. 102.

    Ransford AO, Hughes SP:Complete brachial plexus lesions: a ten-year follow-up of twenty cases.J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1977,59B: 417–420.

  103. 103.

    Taylor PE:Traumatic intradural avulsion of the nerve roots of the brachial plexus.Brain 1962,85: 579–602. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  104. 104.

    Wynn-Parry CB:Pain in avulsion of the brachial plexus.Neurosurgery 1984,15: 960–965. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  105. 105.

    Wynn-Parry CB:Brachial plexus injuries.Br J Hosp Med 1984,32: 134–139.

  106. 106.

    Wynn-Parry CB:The management of injuries to the brachial plexus.Proc R Soc Med 1974,67: 488–490. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  107. 107.

    Tasker RR, Dostrovsky JO:Deafferentation and central pain.In InTextbook of Pain. Edited by Wall PD, Melzack R. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone; 1989: 154–180.

  108. 108.

    Mazars GJ, Merienne L, Cioloca C:Contribution of thalamic stimulation to the physiopathology of pain.In InAdvances in Pain Research and Therapy. Edited by Bonica JJ, Albe-Fessard D. New York: Raven Press; 1976: 483–485.

  109. 109.

    Mundinger F, Salomao JF:Deep brain stimulation in mesencephalic lemniscus medialis for chronic pain.Acta Neurochir Suppl 1980,30: 245–258.

  110. 110.

    Siegfried J, Hood T:Current status of functional neurosurgery.In InAdvances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery. Edited by Krayenbuhl H. Wein: Springer-Verlag; 1983: 19–79.

  111. 111.

    Wynn-Parry CB:Pain in avulsion lesions of the brachial plexus.Pain 1980,9: 41–53. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  112. 112.

    Powers SK, Adams JE, Edwards MS,et al.:Pain relief from dorsal root entry zone lesions made with argon and carbon dioxide microsurgical lasers.J Neurosurg 1984,61: 841–847. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  113. 113.

    Sindou M, Daher A:Spinal cord ablation procedures for pain. In InProceedings of the Vth World Congress on Pain. Edited by Dubner R, Gebhart GF, Bond MR. Elsevier Science; 1988: 477–495.

  114. 114.

    Huittinen VM:Lumbosacral nerve root injury in fracture of the pelvis: a postmortem radiographic and patho-anatomical study.Acta Chir Scand Suppl 1972,429: 3–43. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  115. 115.

    Sampson JH, Cashman RE, Nashold BS, Friedman AH:Dorsal root entry zone lesions for intractable pain after trauma to the conus medularis and cauda equina.J Neurosurg 1995,82: 28–34. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  116. 116.

    Moossy JJ, Nashold BS:Dorsal root entry zone lesions for conus medullaris root avulsions.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 198–205. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  117. 117.

    Rose M, Robinson JE, Ells P,et al.:Pain following spinal cord injury: results from a postal survey.Pain 1988,34: 101–102. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  118. 118.

    Botterell EH, Callaghan JC, Jousse AT:Pain in paraplegia: clinical management and surgical treatment.Proc R Soc Med 1954,47: 281–288. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  119. 119.

    Barnett HJM, Botterell EH, Jousse AT, Wynn-Jones J:Progressive myelopathy as a sequel to traumatic paraplegia.Brain 1972,89: 159–174.

  120. 120.

    Burke DC:Pain in paraplegia.Paraplegia 1973,10: 297–313. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  121. 121.

    Richards JS, Meredith RL, Nepomuceno C,et al.:Psycho-social aspects of chronic pain in spinal cord injury.Pain 1980,8: 355–366. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  122. 122.

    Friedman AH, Nashold BS:Pain of spinal origin.In InNeurological Surgery. Edited by Youmans JR. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990: 3950–3959.

  123. 123.

    Shannon N, Symon L, Logue V,et al.:Clinical features, investigation and treatment of post-traumatic syringomyelia.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981,44: 35–42. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  124. 124.

    Melzack R, Loeser JD:Phantom body pain in paraplegics: evidence for a central “pattern generating mechanism” for pain.Pain 1978,4: 195–210. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  125. 125.

    Jensen TS, Rasmussen P:Phantom pain and related phenomena after amputation.In InTextbook of Pain. Edited by Wall PD, Melzack R. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone; 1989: 508–521.

  126. 126.

    Nashold BS, Ostdahl RH:Dorsal root entry zone lesions for pain relief.J Neurosurg 1979,51: 59–69. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  127. 127.

    Thomas DGT, Jones SJ:Dorsal root entry zone lesions (Nasholds procedure) in brachial plexus avulsion.Neurosurgery 1984,15: 966–968. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  128. 128.

    Richter HP, Seitz K:Dorsal root entry zone lesions for the control of deafferentation pain: experiences in ten patients.Neurosurgery 1984,15: 956–959. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  129. 129.

    Wynn-Parry CB:Brachial plexus injuries.Br J Hosp Med 1984,32: 134–139.

  130. 130.

    Garcia-March G, Sanchez-Ledesma MJ, Diaz P,et al.:Dorsal root entry zone lesion versus spinal cord stimulation in the management of pain from brachial plexus avulsion.Acta Neurochirurgica Suppl 1987,39: 155–158.

  131. 131.

    Campbell JN, Solomon CT, James CS:The Hopkins experience with lesions of the dorsal horn (Nasholds operation) for pain from avulsion of the brachial plexus.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 170–174. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  132. 132.

    Ishijima B, Shimoji K, Shimizu H,et al.:Lesions of spinal and trigeminal dorsal root entry zone for deafferentation pain: experience of 35 cases.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 175–187. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  133. 133.

    Samii M, Kohmura E, Khalil H,et al.:Dorsal root entry zone coagulation for control of intractable pain due to brachial plexus injury.In InPeripheral Nerve Lesions. Edited by Samii M. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1990: 422–426.

  134. 134.

    Kumagai Y, Shimoji K, Honma T,et al.:Problems related to dorsal root entry zone lesions.Acta Neurochir 1992,115: 71–78.

  135. 135.

    Pagni CA, Canavero S:Pain, muscle spasms and twitching fingers following brachial plexus avulsion: report of three cases relieved by dorsal root entry zone coagulation.J Neurol 1993,240: 468–470. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  136. 136.

    Wiegand H, Winkelmuller W:Treatment of deafferentation pain by high-frequency intervention on the dorsal root entry zone.Deutsche Med Wschr 1985,110: 216–220.

  137. 137.

    Samii M, Moringlane JR:Thermocoagulation of the dorsal root entry zone for the treatment of intractable pain.Neurosurgery 1984,15: 953–955. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  138. 138.

    Friedman AH, Bullitt E:Dorsal root entry zone lesions in the treatment of pain following brachial plexus avulsion, spinal cord injury and herpes zoster.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 164–169. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

  139. 139.

    Moosy JJ, Nashold BS:Dorsal root entry zone lesions for conus medullaris root avulsions.Appl Neurophysiol 1988,51: 198–205. ▸ View thePubMed notation for this reference.

Download references

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Friedman, A.H., Villavicencio, A. Ablative spinal cord surgery for the treatment of chronic pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep 1, 223–237 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02938170

Download citation

Keywords

  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Dorsal Horn
  • Brachial Plexus
  • Brachial Plexus Injury
  • PubMed Notation