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Biokonzentration von persistenten superlipophilen Chemikalien in aquatischen Organismen

Bioconcentration of superlipophilic persistent chemicals in aquatic organisms

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Zusammenfassung

Nach der zur Zeit geltenden Auffassung sollen persistente superlipophile Chemikalien (z.B. Octachlordibenzo-p-dioxin, Decachlorbiphenyl, Mirex etc.) mit einemn-Octanol/Wasser-Verteilungskoeffizienten log Kow>6 und einem Molekülquerschnitt >9,5 Å kaum bzw. garnicht in aquatischen Organismen aus dem Wasser angereichert werden. Diese Vorstellung muß jedoch revidiert werden. Das wichtigste Gegenargument ist, daß bei den bis jetzt durchgeführten Biokonzentrationsexperimenten mit Konzentrationen im Wasser gearbeitet wurde, die um einige Zehnerpotenzen über der Wasserlöslichkeit dieser superlipophilen Chimikalien lagen. In dieser Arbeit werden Methoden zur Abschätzung des BCF-Wertes (Biokonzentrationsfaktor) in Fischen und Muscheln angegeben. Diese BCF-Werte für Octachlordibenzo-p-dioxin in Fischen und Muscheln stimmen mit den aus dem log Kow-Wert bzw aus der Wasserlöslichkeit berechneten Werten gut überein und sind um einige Zehnerpotenzen höher als bisher angegeben. Für die Zukunft sollte für superlipophile persistente Chemikalien die kinetische Methode mit Durchfluß zur exakten BCF-Bestimmung angewendet werden. Die Chemikalienkozentration muß dabei selbstverständlich unter der Wasserlöslichkeit bleiben. Um die BCF-Werte einer Chemikalie z.B. in verschiedenen Fischarten vergleichen zu können, ist zudem unbedingt eine Lipid-Bestimmung nötig.

Abstract

According to generally accepted theory, persistent superlipophilic chemicals with logn-octanol/water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) >6 and molecular sizes >9,5 Å, such as octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, decachlorobiphenyl, Mirex etc., do not significantly bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms from ambient water. In the light of new results and considerations, this hypothesis has to be revised. The most convincing argument against this hypothesis is that in all bioconcentration experiments with superlipophilic chemicals compound concentrations have been applied which exceeded water solubility by several orders of magnitude. In this paper we describe various methods how to determine bioconcentration (BCF) factors of superlipophilic compounds. As exemplified with octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Mirex, BCF values evaluated by this means match well those calculated by QSARs for fish and mussels based on log Kow and water solubility as well. As expected these BCF values exceed previous ones by several orders of magnitude.

As practical consequences, we recommend for BCF evaluations of superlipophilic chemicals:

  1. 1.

    flow-through systems, kinetic method (OECD guideline No 305 E)

  2. 2.

    ambient concentrations≤water solubility.

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Correspondence to H. J. Geyer.

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Geyer, H.J., Steinberg, C.E.W. & Kettrup, A. Biokonzentration von persistenten superlipophilen Chemikalien in aquatischen Organismen. UWSF - Z. Umweltchem. Ökotox. 4, 74–77 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02937066

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