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Origins of resistances to rust and late leaf spot in peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae)

Origine des Sources de Résistance á la Rouille et á la Cercosporiose Tardive de lÁrachide (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae)

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Abstract

The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae) is believed to have originated along the eastern slopes of the Andes in Bolivia and northern Argentina. The crop is now grown throughout tropical and warm temperate regions. Among diseases attacking peanuts, rust caused byPuccinia arachidis and late leaf spot caused byPhaeoisariopsis personata are the most important and destructive on a worldwide scale. Both pathogens, restricted in host range to Arachis, probably originated and coevolved in South America along with their hosts. In recent years there has been much emphasis on screening of peanut germplasm for resistance to these diseases. At the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISA T), India, some 10,000 peanut germplasm accessions were screened for resistance to rust and late leaf spot during 1977–1985 and sources of resistance indentified for either or both pathogens. Of the resistant genotypes, about 87% belonged to A. hypogaea var.fastigiata and 13% to var.hypogaea; 84% originated in South America or had South American connections. A high percentage (75%) had their origin in Peru (believed to be a secondary gene center for var.hirsuta and var.fastigiata,), suggesting that resistance to rust and late leaf spot diseases might have evolved in that country.

Résumé

Lárachide cultivée (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae) serait originaire du versant oriental des Andes, en Bolívie et en Argentine du Nord. Cette culture est maintenant pratiquée dans toutes les régions tropicales et tempérées relativement chaudes du monde. A I’échelle mondiale, la rouille,Puccinia arachidis, et la cercosporiose tardive,Phaeoisariopsis personata, sont les deux principales maladies de l’arachide. Les deux agents pathogénes, dontArachis est Ihôte unique, sont probablement aussi originaires de l’Amérique du Sud, où ils se seraient développés avec lews hôles. Au cours des dernières années, un effort particulier a été fait pour cribler les ressources génétiques pour leur résistance à ces maladies. A l’Institut International de Recherches sur les Cultures des Zones Tropicales Semi-Arides (ICRISAT), en Inde, quelque 10,000 génotypes dárachide ont été criblés, entre 1977 et 1985, pour leur résistance á la rouille et la cercosporiose tardive, et des sources de résistance á l’un ou l’autre, ou aux deux agents pathogènes ont été identifyées. Près de 87% des génotypes résistants appartenaient àA. hypogaea var. fastigiata et 13% à var. hypogaea; 84% d’entre eux provenaient d’Amerique du Sud, ou pouvaient être apparentés à des sources sudaméricaines. Un fort pourcentage (75%) provenait du Pérou (centre génique secondaire Généralement reconnu de var. hirsuta et var. fastigiata,), suggérant ainsi que les sources de résistance à la rouille et la cercosporiose tardive se seraient développées dans ce pays.

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Correspondence to P. Subrahmanyam.

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Approved as Journal Article No. 629 by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).

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Subrahmanyam, P., Rao, V.R., McDonald, D. et al. Origins of resistances to rust and late leaf spot in peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae). Econ Bot 43, 444–455 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02935917

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Keywords

  • Economic Botany
  • Peru
  • Arachis
  • Arachis Hypogaea
  • Rust Disease