Fatigue crack propagation in single-crystal CMSX- 2 at elevated temperature

  • 163 Accesses

  • 22 Citations


The fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behavior of the nickel-base superalloy CMSX-2 in single-crystal form was investigated. Tests were conducted for two temperatures (25 and 700 °C), two orientations ([001][110] and [001][010]), and in two environments (laboratory air and ultra-high vacuum 10-7 torr). Following FCP testing, the fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FCP rates were found to be relatively independent of the temperature, environment, and orientation when correlated with the conventional mode I stress-intensity factor. Examination of the fracture sur-faces revealed two distinct types of fracture. One type was characterized by 111 fracture surfaces, which were inclined relative to both the loading and crack propagation directions. These features, al-though clearly a result of the fatigue process, resembled cleavage fractures along 111 planes. Such fea-tures were observed at 25 and 700 °C; they were the only features observed for the 25 °C tests. The second type had a macroscopically dull loading appearance, was microscopically rough, and grew normal to the loading axis. These features were observed on the specimens tested at 700 °C (in both air and vacuum) and appeared similar to conventional fatigue fractures. Although in this region the crack plane was mac-roscopically normal to the loading direction, it deviated microscopically to avoid shearing the y ’ precipi-tates. In view of the complex crack growth mechanisms, mixed fracture modes, and lack of any difference in FCP rates, it is hypothesized that the correlation between FCP rates and the stress-intensity parameter is probably coincidental. The implications for life prediction of higher temperature turbine components based on conventional fracture mechanics are significant and should be investigated further.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 408

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.


  1. 1.

    P. Caron, Y. Ohta, Y.G. Nakagawa, and T. Khan, Creep Deforma- tion Anisotropy in Single Crystal Superalloys,Superalloys 1988, D.N. Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, Ed., The Metallurgical Society, 1988, p 215-224

  2. 2.

    M. Dollar and I.M. Bernstein, The Effect of Temperature on the Deformation Structure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Superal- loys,Superalloys 1988, D.N. Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, Ed., The Metallurgical Society, 1988, p 275-284

  3. 3.

    G.R. Leverant and M. Gell, The Influence of Temperature and Cyclic Frequency on the Fatigue Fracture of Cube Oriented Nickel Base Superalloy Single Crystals,Metall. Trans. A, Vol 6, 1975, p 367–371

  4. 4.

    K.S. Chan, J.E. Hack, and G.R. Leverant, Fatigue Crack Growth in MAR-M200 Single Crystals,Metall. Trans. A, Vol 18, 1987, p 751–759

  5. 5.

    H.H. Johnson, Calibrating the Electric Potential Method for Studying Slow Crack Growth,Mater. Res. Stand., Vol 5 (No. 9), 1965, p 442–445

  6. 6.

    ASTM Designation E647-88a, Standard Test Method for Meas- urement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates,Annual Book of ASTM Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1984, p 648-668

  7. 7.

    K.S. Chan and T.A. Cruse, Stress Intensity Factors for Aniso- tropie Compact-Tension Specimens with Inclined Cracks,Eng. Fract. Median., Vol 23 (No. 5), 1986, p 863–874

  8. 8.

    B.H. Kear and B.J. Piearcey, Tensile and Creep Properties of Sin- gle Crystals of the Nickel-Base Superalloy Mar-M 200,Trans. TMS-AIME, Vol 239, 1967, p 1209–1215

  9. 9.

    S.M. Copley, B.H. Kear, and G.M. Rowe, The Temperature and Orientation Dependence of Yielding in Mar-M 200 Single Crys- tals,Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol 10, 1972, p 87–91

  10. 10.

    B.A. Lerch and S.D. Antolovich, Fatigue Crack Propagation Be- havior of a Single Crystalline Superalloy,Metall. Trans. A, Vol 21, 1990, p 2169–2177

  11. 11.

    P.C. Paris and G.C. Sih, Stress Analysis of Cracks,Fracture Toughness Testing and its Applications, ASTM STP 381, Ameri- can Society for Testing and Materials, 1964, p 30-81

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Antolovich, B.F., Saxena, A. & Antolovich, S.D. Fatigue crack propagation in single-crystal CMSX- 2 at elevated temperature. JMEP 2, 489–495 (1993).

Download citation


  • fatigue crack propagation
  • nickel-base alloy
  • single crystal