Study of the isothermal transformation of ductile iron with 0.5% Cu by electrical resistance measurement

  • B. Y. Lin
  • E. T. Chen
  • T. S. Lei
Materials Characterization


A computer-controlled system for measuring electrical resistance has been developed and used to study the isothermal transformation of austenite in a ductile iron (3.31 % C, 3.12 % Si, 0.22 % Mn, 0.55 % Cu). The ability of the technique to follow the isothermal decomposition of austenite was established by measurements on an AISI4340 steel. The times at which the austenite decomposed to primary ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were accurately detected. In the ductile iron, the formation of pearlite and of bainite was easily detected, and an isothermal transformation diagram was constructed from the results. The temperature range for the formation of bainite is especially important in producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) and was mapped. An initial stage of decomposition of austenite to ferrite and high-carbon austenite is followed by a time delay; then the high-carbon austenite decomposes to bainite. The formation of ADI requires austempering to a structure of ferrite and high-carbon austenite, then quenching to retain this structure, thus avoiding the formation of bainite. This is achieved by isothermal transformation into the time-delay region. For the ductile iron studied here, this time region was about 2.6 h at 400 °C and increased to 277 h at 300 °C.


computer-controlled ductile iron electrical resistance isothermal transformation 


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Copyright information

© ASM International 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Y. Lin
    • 1
  • E. T. Chen
    • 1
  • T. S. Lei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and TechnologyNational Taiwan Institute of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan

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