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Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 56–67 | Cite as

Ocular complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Focus on the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with ganciclovir and foscarnet
  • W. J. Keijer
  • D. M. Burger
  • G. H. G. Neuteboom
  • J. L. Vrooland
  • P. L. Meenhorst
  • C. H. W. Koks
  • J. H. Beijnen
Reviews Pharmacotherapy Evaluations

Abstract

The most common ocular complication in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is cytomegalovirus retinitis. Incidence figures vary from 20 to 76%. Patients with cytomegalovirus may suffer from mild visual impairment of one or both eyes, but as the disease progresses the retinitis will almost certainly lead to blindness. Although cytomegalovirus retinitis is not a life-threatening infection, it can largely diminish the patient's quality of life. Clinical trials for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with a number of antiviral drugs have resulted in two drugs of choice, ganciclovir and foscarnet. Both drugs have an initial efficacy with induction therapy of 80–90%, but maintenance therapy is always needed to prevent a relapse. To exclude systemic side-effects of ganciclovir, intravitreal administration has been investigated with good results. Combination therapy of foscarnet and ganciclovir may be worthwhile in resistant cytomegalovirus retinitis.

Keywords

AIDS Cytomegaloviruses Drug therapy Foscarnet Ganciclovir HIV infection Retinitis 

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Copyright information

© Periodicals Service Company 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. J. Keijer
    • 1
  • D. M. Burger
    • 1
  • G. H. G. Neuteboom
    • 2
  • J. L. Vrooland
    • 2
  • P. L. Meenhorst
    • 3
  • C. H. W. Koks
    • 1
  • J. H. Beijnen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacySlotervaart HospitalEC Amsterdamthe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologySlotervaart HospitalAmsterdam
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineSlotervaart HospitalAmsterdam

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