A model is presented which describes the transport of iron and manganese in the vicinity of a redox boundary. It is based on input of a particulate component, to form a point source, from which soluble species diffuse along a concentration gradient. The shapes of concentration-depth profiles in marine and freshwater sediments and water columns are reviewed and discussed in terms of the model. Transport, either entirely within a water column or within the sediment, may be simply treated because the rate of vertical transport can be regarded as constant. The discontinuity in the rate of vertical transport which occurs at the sediment-water interface can provide a complicated example of the model, especially when it coincides with the redox boundary. Authigenic mineral formation processes can modify the model, sometimes to such an extent that it becomes invalid. This is particularly true for soluble iron profiles in organically rich marine sediments. Sampling interval is critical to the resultant profile shape and must be relevant to the particular environment, e.g. metres in water columns and millimetres in sediments. The differences in the rates of reduction and oxidation of iron and manganese tend to modify both the position of the profile with respect to the redox-cline and its stage of development in a seasonally anoxic system. It is these factors which determine why most of the iron which reaches a sediment is permanently incorporated whereas manganese is re-released. This mechanism determines the average ratio of iron to manganese in sedimentary rocks. The development of peaked profile shapes in water columns implies that under certain conditions dissolved iron and manganese may be transported from the water column to the pore waters of the sediment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Berner, R. A., 1971. Principles of Chemical Sedimentology. McGraw-Hill. 240 pp.
Berner, R. A., 1980. Early Diagenesis. Princeton University Press. 241 pp.
Campbell, P. & Jorgensen, T., 1980. Maintenance of iron meromixis by iron redeposition in a rapidly flushed monimolimnion. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37: 1303–1313.
Cook, R. B., 1981. The biogeochemistry of sulfur in two small lakes. Ph. D. thesis, Columbia University. 234 pp.
Crerar, D. A., Cormick, R. K. & Barnes, H. L., 1980. Geochemistry of manganese: an overview In: Varentsov, I. M. & Graselly, G. (Eds) Geology and Geochemistry of Manganese, Vol. 1: General Problems, pp. 293–334. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest. 463 pp.
Davison, W., 1980. A critical comparison of the measured solubilities of ferrous sulphide in natural waters. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 44: 803–808.
Davison, W., 1981. Supply of iron and manganese to an anoxic lake basin. Nature 290: 241–243.
Davison, W. & Heaney, S.I., 1980. Determination of the solubility of ferrous sulphide in a seasonally anoxic marine basin. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 153–156.
Davison, W., Heaney, S. I., Talling, J. F. & Rigg, E., 1981. Seasonal transformations and movements of iron in a productive English lake with deep-water anoxia. Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 42: 196–224.
Emerson, S., 1976. Early diagenesis in anaerobic lake sediments: chemical equilibria in interstitial waters. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 40: 925–934.
Emerson, S. & Widmer, G., 1978. Early diagenesis in anaerobic lake sediments. II, Thermodynamic and kinetic factors controlling the formation or iron phosphate. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 42: 1307–1316.
Froelich, P. N., Klinkhammer, G. P., Bender, M. L., Luedkte, N. A., Heath, G. R., Cullen, D., Dauphin, P., Hammond, D., Hartman, B. & Maynard, V., 1979. Early oxidation of organic matter in pelagic sediments of the eastern equatorial Atlantic: suboxic diageneses. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 43: 1075–1090.
Hesslein, R. H., 1980. Whole lake model for the distribution of sediment-derived chemical species. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37:552–558.
Howard, H. H. & Chisholm, S. W., 1975. Seasonal variation of manganese in a eutrophic lake. Am. Midi. Nat. 93: 188–197.
Hutchinson, G. E., 1957. A Treatise on Limnology, Vol. 1. Wiley. 1015 pp.
Imboden, D. M. & Emerson, S., 1978. Natural radon and phosphorus as limnologic tracers: horizontal and vertical eddy diffusion in Greifensee. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 77–90.
Kjensmo, J., 1967. the development and some main features of ‘iron-meromictic’ soft water lakes. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 32: 137–312.
Morel, F. & Morgan, J., 1972. A numerical method for computing equilibria in aqueous chemical systems. Env. Sci. Technol. 6: 58–67.
Mortimer, C. H., 1941. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes: I and II, J. Ecol. 29: 280–329.
Mortimer, C H., 1942. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes: III and IV. J. Ecol. 30: 147–201.
Murray, J. W., Grundmanis, V. & Smethie, W. M., 1978. Interstitial water chemistry in the sediments of Saanich Inlet. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 42: 1011–1026.
Quay, P. D., 1977. An experimental study of turbulent diffusion in lakes. Ph. D. dissertation, Columbia University. 194 pp.
Quay, P. D., Broecker, W. S., Hesslein, R. H. & Schindler, D. W., 1980. Vertical diffusion rates determined by tritium tracer experiments in the thermocline and hypolimnion of two lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 201–218.
Robbins, J. A. & Callender, E., 1975. Diagenesis of manganese in Lake Michigan sediments. Am. J. Sci. 275: 512–533.
Spencer, D. W. & Brewer, P. G., 1971. Vertical advective diffusion and redox potentials as controls in the distribution of manganese and other trace metals dissolved in waters of the Black Sea. J. geophys. Res. 76: 5877–5892.
Stumm, W. & Morgan, J. J., 1970. Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley. 583 pp.
Sundby, G., Silverberg, N. & Chesselet, R., 1981. Pathways of manganese in an open estuarine system. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta 45: 293–307.
Verdouw, H. & Dekkers, E. M. J., 1980. Iron and manganese in Lake Vechten: dynamics and role in the cycle of reducing power. Arch. Hydrobiol. 89: 509–532.
Wedepohl, K. H., 1980. Geochemical behaviour of manganese. In: Varentsov, I. M. & Grasselly, G. (Eds) Geology and Geochemistry of Manganese, Vol. I: General Problems, pp. 335–351. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest.
Weiler, R. R., 1973. The interstitial water composition in the sediments of the Great Lakes. I. Western Lake Ontario. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 918–931.
Wyrtki, K., 1952. The oxygen minima in relation to ocean circulation. Deep Sea Res. 9: 11–23.
About this article
Cite this article
Davison, W. Transport of iron and manganese in relation to the shapes of their concentration-depth profiles. Hydrobiologia 91, 463–471 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00940134