Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A cladistic analysis of the tribeAstereae (Asteraceae) with notes on their evolution and subtribal classification

  • 295 Accesses

  • 25 Citations

Abstract

TheAstereae were surveyed and the genera arranged in 23 informal groups. The generic groups were used to sample representative genera for a cladistic analysis based on morphological characters. The resulting cladogram was used for discussion of evolution and subtribal classification within the tribe. The lower basic chromosome numbers x = 4, 5, 6, and 8 are interpreted as reductions from a primitive x = 9. The subtribeGrangeinae occupies a phylogenetically basal position as sister group to the rest of the tribe. This may be divided into two large groups, largely corresponding to the homochromousSolidagininae and to the heterochromousAsterinae sensu lato, i.e. including theBellidinae, Hinterhuberinae, Conyzinae, andBaccharidinae. The latter four subtribes are derived within theAsterinae, and hence reduced to synonymy. Several intercontinental relationships indicate that a geographical subdivision of the tribe should be avoided, although in our analysis most of the groups proved to be restricted to one of five major regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adams, L. G., 1979: A review of the genusSolenogyne (Asteraceae) in Australia and New Zealand. — Brunonia2: 43–65.

  2. Anderberg, A. A., 1989: Phylogeny and reclassification of the tribeInuleae (Asteraceae). — Canad. J. Bot.67: 2277–2296.

  3. Anderberg, A. A., 1991a: Taxonomy and phylogeny of the tribeInuleae (Asteraceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.176: 75–123.

  4. Anderberg, A. A., 1991b: Taxonomy and phylogeny of the tribePlucheeae (Asteraceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.176: 145–177.

  5. Anderberg, A. A., 1991c: Taxonomy and phylogeny of the tribeGnaphalieae (Asteraceae). — Opera Bot.104: 1–195.

  6. Anderson, L. C., 1964: Studies onPetradoria (Compositae): anatomy, cytology, taxonomy. — Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.66: 632–684.

  7. Anderson, L. C., 1966: Cytotaxonomic studies inChrysothamnus (Astereae-Compositae). — Amer. J. Bot.53: 204–212.

  8. Anderson, L. C., 1970: Studies onBigelowia (Astereae-Compositae). 1. Morphology and taxonomy. — Sida3: 451–465.

  9. Anderson, L. C., 1972: Studies onBigelowia (Astereae, Compositae). II. Xylary comparisons, woodiness, and paedomorphosis. — J. Arnold Arbor.53: 499–514.

  10. Anderson, L. C., 1977: Studies onBigelowia (Asteraceae). III. Cytotaxonomy and biogeography. — Syst. Bot.2: 209–218.

  11. Anderson, L. C., 1987:Boltonia apalachicolensis (Asteraceae): a new species from Florida. — Syst. Bot.12: 133–138.

  12. Anderson, L. C., Weberg, P. S., 1974: The anatomy and taxonomy ofVanclevea (Asteraceae). — Great Basin Naturalist34: 151–160.

  13. Ariza Espinar, L., 1980: Las especies centroargentinas deHysterionica (Compositae). — Darwiniana22: 537–549.

  14. Baagøe, J., 1978: Taxonomical application of ligule microcharacters inCompositae. II.Astereae. — Bot. Tidsskr.72: 129–131.

  15. Barroso, G. M., 1975:Baccharidiopsis—um genero novo da substriboBaccharidinae Hoffmann (TriboAstereae). — Sellowia27: 95–101.

  16. Bayer, E., 1981: Revision der GattungChrysocoma L. (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München17: 259–392.

  17. Beaman, J. H., 1957: The systematics and evolution ofTownsendia (Compositae). — Contr. Gray Herb.183: 1–151.

  18. Bentham, G., 1873a:Compositae. — InBentham, G., Hooker, J. D., (Eds): Genera plantarum2, pp. 163–533. — London.

  19. Bentham, G., 1873b: Notes on the classification, history, and geographical distribution of theCompositae. — J. Linn. Soc. Bot.13: 335–577.

  20. Blake, S. F., 1924:Hemibaccharis, a new genus ofBaccharidinae. — Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.20: 543–554.

  21. Blake, S. F., 1937:Tracyina, a new genus ofAsteraceae from Northern California. — Madroño4: 73–77.

  22. Bremer, K., 1987: Tribal interrelationships of theAsteraceae. — Cladistics3: 210–253.

  23. Bremer, K., 1990: Combinable component consensus. — Cladistics6: 369–372.

  24. Bremer, K., 1993: Intercontinental relationships of African and South AmericanAsteraceae—a cladistic biogeographic analysis. — InGoldblatt, P., (Ed.): Biological relationships between Africa and South America. — New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press (in press).

  25. -Humphries, C. J., 1993: Generic monograph of theAnthemideae (Asteraceae). — Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Bot. (in press).

  26. Bremer, K., Jansen, R. K., Karis, P. O., Källersjö, M., Keeley, S. C., Kim, K.-J., Michaels, H. J., Palmer, J. D., Wallace, R. S., 1992: A review of the phylogeny and classification of theAsteraceae. — Nordic J. Bot.12: 141–148.

  27. Brown, G. K., Clark, W. D., 1982: Taxonomy ofHaplopappus sect.Gymnocoma (Compositae). — Syst. Bot.7: 199–213.

  28. Bruhl, J. J., Quinn, C. J., 1990: Cypsela anatomy in the “Cotuleae” (Asteraceae-Anthemideae). — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.102: 37–59.

  29. Burbidge, N. T., 1982: A revision ofVittadinia A. Rich. (Compositae) together with reinstatement ofEurybiopsis DC. and description of a new genus,Camptacra. — Brunonia5: 1–72.

  30. Cabrera, A. L., 1946: El géneroHysterionica en el Uruguay en y la república Argentina. — Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot.11: 349–359.

  31. Cabrera, A. L., 1954: Las especies del género “Nardophyllum”. — Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot.17: 55–66.

  32. Cabrera, A. L., 1966: The genusLagenophora (Compositae). — Blumea14: 285–308.

  33. Cabrera, A. L., 1969: Compuestas nuevas de Patagonia. — Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot.11: 271–75.

  34. Chebataroff, P. J., 1981: Una nueva especie del géneroSommerfeltia (Compositae). — Hickenia1: 233–235.

  35. Cheeseman, T. F., 1925: Manual of the New Zealand Flora, 2nd edn. — Wellington: Government Printer.

  36. Clark, W. D., 1979: The taxonomy ofHazardia (Compositae-Astereae). — Madroño26: 105–127.

  37. Cronquist, A., 1947: Revision of the North American species ofErigeron, North of Mexico. — Brittonia6: 121–302.

  38. Cuatrecasas, J., 1969: Prima Flora Colombiana, 3.Compositae-Astereae. — Webbia24: 1–335.

  39. Cuatrecasas, J., 1970: Reinstatement of the genusLlerasia (Compositae). — Biotropica2: 39–45.

  40. Cuatrecasas, J., 1977:Westoniella, a new genus of theAstereae from the Costa Rican paramos. — Phytologia35: 471–487.

  41. Cuatrecasas, J., 1982: Miscellaneous notes on neotropical flora, XV. New taxa in theAstereae. — Phytologia52: 166–177.

  42. Cuatrecasas, J., 1989: Un género nuevo deAstereae, Compositae, de Colombia. — Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid42: 415–426.

  43. Davis, G. L., 1948: Revision of the genusBrachycome Cass. — Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales73: 142–241.

  44. Davis, G. L., 1952: Revision of the genusCalotis R. Br. — Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales77: 146–188.

  45. Davis, P. H., (Ed.), 1975: Flora of Turkey5. — Edinburgh: The University Press.

  46. De Jong, D. C. D., 1965: A systematic study of the genusAstranthium (Compositae-Astereae). — Michigan, East Lansing: Publication of the Museum, Michigan State University.

  47. De Jong, D. C. D., Beaman, J. H., 1963: The genusOlivaea (Compositae-Astereae). — Brittonia15: 86–92.

  48. Dunlop, C. R., 1980: A revision ofIxiochlamys (Asteraceae-Astereae). — J. Adelaide Bot. Gard.2: 241–252.

  49. Engler, A., 1888: Plantae Marlothianae. — Bot. Jahrb. Syst.10: 242–285.

  50. Farris, J. S., 1988: Hennig 86. Version 1.5. — Port Jefferson Station, New York: Published by the author.

  51. Farris, J. S., 1989: The retention index and the rescaled consistency index. — Cladistics5: 417–419.

  52. Fayed, A., 1979: Revision derGrangeinae (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München15: 425–576.

  53. Given, D. R., 1969: Taxonomic notes on the genusCelmisia (Compositae). A synopsis of infrageneric categories inCelmisia (Astereae-Compositae). — New Zealand J. Bot.7: 389–418.

  54. Given, D. R., 1973:Damnamenia gen. nov. A new subantarctic genus allied toCelmisia Cass. (Astereae-Compositae). — New Zealand J. Bot.11: 785–796.

  55. Given, D. R., 1980: A taxonomic revision ofCelmisia coriacea (Forst. f.)Hook. f. and its immediate allies (Astereae-Compositae). — New Zealand J. Bot.18: 127–140.

  56. Given, D. R., 1984: A taxonomic revision ofCelmisia subgenusPelliculatae sectionPetiolatae (Compositae-Astereae). — New Zealand J. Bot.22: 139–158.

  57. Grau, J., 1970: Die GattungPolyarrhena Cass. (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München7: 347–368.

  58. Grau, J., 1973: Revision der GattungFelicia (Asteraceae). — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München4: 195–705.

  59. Grau, J., 1977a:Astereae-systematic review. — InHeywood, V. H., Harborne, J. B., Turner, B. L., (Eds): The biology and chemistry of theCompositae 1, pp. 539–565. — London: Academic Press.

  60. Grau, J., 1977b:Poecilolepis — Eine neue Gattung derAsteraceae-Astereae. — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München13: 243–254.

  61. Grierson, A. J. C., 1967: The genusPsychrogeton (Compositae). — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh27: 101–147.

  62. Hall, H. M., 1928: The genusHaplopappus. A phylogenetic study in theCompositae. — Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  63. Hall, H. M., Clements, F. C., 1923: The phylogenetic method in taxonomy. The North American species ofArtemisia, Chrysothamnus, andAtriplex. — Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington326: 1–355.

  64. Harling, G., 1951: Embryological studies in theCompositae III:Astereae. — Acta Horti Berg.16: 73–120.

  65. Hartman, R. L., 1990: A conspectus ofMachaeranthera (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia68: 439–465.

  66. Hellwig, F. H., 1990: Die GattungBaccharis L. (Compositae-Asteraceae) in Chile. — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München29: 1–456.

  67. Hilliard, O. M., Burtt, B. L., 1973: Notes on some plants of Southern Africa chiefly from Natal: III. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh32: 364–365.

  68. Hoffmann, O., 1890:Tubuliflorae-Astereae. — InEngler, A., Prantl, K., (Eds): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien4(5), pp. 142–172. — Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.

  69. Howell, J. T., 1929: A systematic study of the genusLessingia Cham. — Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot.16: 1–44.

  70. Hutchinson, J., Phillips, E. P., 1917: A revision of the genusPteronia (Compositae). — Ann. South African Mus.9: 277–329.

  71. Jackson, J. D., 1975: A revision of the genusArchibaccharis Heering (Compositae-Astereae). — Phytologia32: 81–105.

  72. Jansen, R. K., Holsinger, K. E., Michaels, H. J., Palmer, J. D., 1990: Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA restriction site data at higher taxonomic levels: an example from theAsteraceae. — Evolution44: 2089–2105.

  73. Jeffrey, C., Chen, Y. L., 1984: Taxonomic studies on the tribeSenecioneae (Compositae) of Eastern Asia. — Kew Bull.39: 205–446.

  74. Jones, A. G., 1980: A classification of the new world species ofAster (Asteraceae); Data on chromosome numbers inAster (Asteraceae), with comments on the status and relationships of certain North American species. — Brittonia32: 230–261.

  75. Jones, A. G., Smogor, A., 1983: Chromosome counts of and notes on some old world Asters (Asteraceae). — Phytologia53: 429–431.

  76. Jones, A. G., Young, D. A., 1983: Generic concepts ofAster (Asteraceae); a comparison of cladistic, phenetic, and cytological approaches. — Syst. Bot.8: 71–84.

  77. Keck, D. D., 1958: Taxonomic notes on the California flora. — Aliso4: 102–103.

  78. Keil, D. H., Stuessy, T. F., 1981: Systematics ofIsocarpha (Compositae: Eupatorieae). — Syst. Bot.6: 258–287.

  79. King, R. M., Robinson, H., 1987: The genera of theEupatorieae (Asteraceae). — Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press.

  80. Komarov, V. L., (Ed.), 1959: Flora S.S.S.R.25. — Moscow, Leningrad: Akademija Nauk.

  81. Koster, J. Th., 1966: TheCompositae of New Guinea I. — Nova Guinea24: 524–612.

  82. Lander, N. S., Barry, R., 1980a: Reinstatement of the genusKippistia F. Muell. (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Nuytsia3: 215–219.

  83. Lander, N. S., Barry, R., 1980b: A review of the genusMinuria DC. (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Nuytsia3: 221–237.

  84. Lane, M. A., 1979: Taxonomy of the genusAmphiachyris (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Syst. Bot.4: 178–189.

  85. Lane, M. A., 1982: Generic limits ofXanthocephalum, Gutierrezia, Amphiachyris, Gymnosperma, Greenella, andThurovia (Compositae-Astereae). — Syst. Bot.7: 405–416.

  86. Lane, M. A., 1983: Taxonomy ofXanthocephalum (Compositae-Astereae). — Syst. Bot.8: 305–316.

  87. Lane, M. A., 1985: Taxonomy ofGutierrezia (Compositae-Astereae) in North America. — Syst. Bot.10: 7–28.

  88. Lane, M. A., 1988: Generic relationships and taxonomy ofAcamptopappus (Compositae: Astereae). — Madroño35: 247–265.

  89. Ling, Y., Chen, Y. L., 1965: Genera nova del minus cognita familiaeCompositarum, II.Cavea W. W. Smith etSmall etNannoglottis Maxim. — Acta Phytotax. Sin.10: 91–104.

  90. Ling, Y., Chen, Y. L., 1973: Notulae de genereErigeron L. generibusque affinibus florae Sinicae. — Acta Phytotax. Sin.11: 399–430.

  91. Lowrey, T. K., 1986: A biosystematic revision of HawaiianTetramolopium (Compositae-Astereae). — Allertonia4: 204–264.

  92. Nesom, G. L., 1980: A revision of the epappose species ofErigeron (Compositae-Astereae). — Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  93. Nesom, G. L., 1988a: Synopsis ofChaetopappa (Compositae-Astereae) with a new species and the inclusion ofLeucelene. — Phytologia64: 448–456.

  94. Nesom, G. L., 1988b:Baccharis sect.Baccharidastrum (Compositae-Astereae), including two monoecious and one dioecious species. — Phytologia65: 169–173.

  95. Nesom, G. L., 1989a: Taxonomy ofErigeron sect.Polyactis (Compositae: Astereae). — Phytologia66: 415–455.

  96. Nesom, G. L., 1989b: The separation ofTrimorpha (Compositae-Astereae) fromErigeron. — Phytologia67: 61–66.

  97. Nesom, G. L., 1989c: Infrageneric taxonomy of New WorldErigeron (Compositae-Astereae). — Phytologia67: 67–93.

  98. Nesom, G. L., 1989d: A new combination inStenotus (Compositae: Astereae). — Phytologia67: 113–114.

  99. Nesom, G. L., 1990a: Taxonomic summary ofEricameria (Asteraceae: Astereae), with the inclusion ofHaplopappus sects.Macronema andAsiris. — Phytologia68: 144–155.

  100. Nesom, G. L., 1990b: Taxonomy of the genusLaennecia (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia68: 205–228.

  101. Nesom, G. L., 1990c: Further definition ofConyza (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia68: 229–233.

  102. Nesom, G. L., 1990d: Taxonomy ofHeterotheca sect.Heterotheca (Asteraceae-Astereae) in Mexico, with comments on the taxa of the United States. — Phytologia69: 282–294.

  103. Nesom, G. L., 1991a: Taxonomy ofIsocoma (Compositae: Astereae). — Phytologia70: 69–114.

  104. Nesom, G. L., 1991b: Union ofBradburia withChrysopsis (Asteraceae: Astereae), with a phylogenetic hypothesis forChrysopsis. — Phytologia71: 109–121.

  105. Nesom, G. L., 1991c: Transfer ofAster kingii toTonestus (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia71: 122–127.

  106. Nesom, G. L., 1991d:Tomentaurum (Asteraceae: Astereae), a new genus of goldenaster from Chihuahua, Mexico. — Phytologia71: 128–131.

  107. Nesom, G. L., 1991e: Transfer ofHeterotheca bartletii toOsbertia (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia71: 132–135.

  108. Nesom, G. L., 1991f: A phylogenetic hypothesis for the goldenasters (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia71: 136–151.

  109. Nesom, G. L., 1991g: Two new species ofArchibaccharis (Asteraceae: Astereae) from Mexico with a reevaluation of sectional groupings in the genus. — Phytologia71: 152–159.

  110. Nesom, G. L., 1991h: Redefinition ofHesperodoria (Asteraceae: Astereae) and the segregation ofColumbiadoria, a new monotypic genus from the western United States. — Phytologia71: 244–251.

  111. Nesom, G. L., 1991i: Morphological definition of theGutierrezia group (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia71: 252–262.

  112. Nesom, G. L., Morgan, D. R., 1990: Reinstatement ofTonestus (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Phytologia68: 174–180.

  113. Nesom, G. L., Suh, Y., Morgan, D. R., Simpson, B. B., 1990:Xylothamia (Asteraceae-Astereae), a new genus related toEuthamia. — Sida14: 101–116.

  114. Porter, C. L., 1943: The genusAmphipappus Torr. andGray. — Amer. J. Bot.30: 481–483.

  115. Rechinger, K. H., (Ed.), 1982: Flora Iranica154. — Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt.

  116. Robinson, H., 1981: A revision of the tribal and subtribal limits of theHeliantheae (Asteraceae). — Smithsonian Contr. Bot.51: 1–102.

  117. Robinson, H., 1983: A generic review of the tribeLiabeae (Asteraceae). — Smithsonian Contr. Bot.54: 1–69.

  118. Robinson, H., Brettell, R. D., 1972: Tribal revision in theAsteraceae. I. The relationships ofGeissolepis. — Phytologia24: 299–301.

  119. Robinson, H., Brettell, R. D., 1973a: Tribal revisions in theAsteraceae. V. The relationship ofRigiopappus. — Phytologia26: 69–70.

  120. Robinson, H., Brettell, R. D., 1973b: Tribal revisions in theAsteraceae. X. The relationship ofPlagiocheilus. — Phytologia26: 159–162.

  121. Rommel, A., 1977: Die GattungAmellus L. (Asteraceae-Astereae). Systematischer Teil. — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München13: 579–728.

  122. Rommel, A., 1979: Die GattungAmellus L. (Asteraceae-Astereae). Allgemeiner Teil. — Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München15: 243–328.

  123. Sanderson, M. J., 1990: Flexible phylogeny reconstruction: a review of phylogenetic inference packages using parsimony. — Syst. Zool.39: 414–420.

  124. Semple, J. C., 1981: A revision of the goldenaster genusChrysopsis (Nutt.)Ell. nom. cons. (Compositae-Astereae). — Rhodora83: 323–384.

  125. Semple, J. C., Blok, V. C., Heiman, P., 1980: Morphological, anatomical, habit, and habitat differences among the goldenaster generaChrysopsis, Heterotheca, andPityopsis (Compositae-Astereae). — Canad. J. Bot.58: 147–163.

  126. Semple, J. C., Bowers, F. D., 1985: A revision of the goldenaster genusPityopsis Nutt. (Compositae-Astereae). — Univ. Waterloo Biol. Ser.29: 1–34.

  127. Shinners, L. H., 1946: Revision of the genusAphanostephus DC.; The genusDichaetophora A. Gray and its relationships. — Wrightia1: 90–121.

  128. Shinners, L. H., 1949: Revision of the genusEgletes Cassini North of South America. — Lloydia12: 239–250.

  129. Sieren, D. J., 1981: The taxonomy of the genusEuthamia. — Rhodora83: 551–579.

  130. Simon, V. C., 1978:Bellium corsicum n. sp. sowie Notizen über die GattungBellium (Asteraceae). — Bauhinia6: 279–284.

  131. Smith, E. B., 1965: Taxonomy ofHaplopappus, sectionIsopappus (Compositae). — Rhodora67: 217–238.

  132. Smith, E. B., 1981: New combinations inCroptilon (Compositae-Astereae). — Sida9: 59–63.

  133. Solbrig, O. T., 1960: The South American sections ofErigeron and their relation toCelmisia. — Contr. Gray Herb.188: 65–85.

  134. Solbrig, O. T., 1962: The South American species ofErigeron. — Contr. Gray Herb.191: 3–79.

  135. Solbrig, O. T., 1966: The South American species ofGutierrezia. — Contr. Gray Herb.197: 3–42.

  136. Solbrig, O. T., 1977: Chromosomal cytology and evolution in the family Compositae. — InHeywood, V. H., Harborne, J. B., Turner, B. L., (Eds): The biology and chemistry of theCompositae 1, pp. 267–281. — London: Academic Press.

  137. Steyermark, J. A., 1934: Studies inGrindelia. I. New species, varieties, and combinations ofGrindelia. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.21: 227–230.

  138. Stirton, C. H., 1983: Nocturnal petal movements in theAsteraceae. — Bothalia14: 1003–1006.

  139. Suh, Y., Simpson, B. B., 1990: Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA in North AmericanGutierrezia and related genera (Asteraceae: Astereae). — Syst. Bot.15: 660–670.

  140. Sundberg, S. D., 1991: Infraspecific classification ofChloracantha spinosa (Benth.)Nesom (Asteraceae)Astereae. — Phytologia70: 382–391.

  141. Tamainschyan, S. G., 1959:Conyzanthus. — InKomarov, V. L., (Ed.): Flora S.S.S.R.25, pp. 185–188, 583. — Moscow, Leningrad: Akademija Nauk.

  142. Thiele, E.-M., 1988: Bau und Funktion des Antheren-Griffel-Komplexes der Compositen. — Berlin: J. Cramer in Gebrüder Borntraeger.

  143. Turner, B. L., 1984: Taxonomy of the genusAphanostephus (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Phytologia56: 81–101.

  144. Turner, B. L., 1987: Taxonomic study ofMachaeranthera, sectionsMachaeranthera andHesperastrum (Asteraceae). — Phytologia62: 207–266.

  145. Turner, B. L., Sundberg, S. D., 1986: Systematic study ofOsbertia (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.151: 229–239.

  146. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M., Webb, D. A., (Eds), 1976: Flora Europaea4. — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  147. Van Horn, G. S., 1973: The taxonomic status ofPentachaeta andChaetopappa with a revision ofPentachaeta. — Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot.65: 1–41.

  148. Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., 1987: A new species ofRemya (Asteraceae-Astereae) on Kauai and a review of the genus. — Syst. Bot.12: 601–608.

  149. Watson, T. J., 1977: The taxonomy ofXylorhiza (Asteraceae-Astereae). — Brittonia29: 199–216.

  150. Wild, H., 1969: The genusNidorella Cass. — Bol. Soc. Brot.43: 209–243.

  151. Wild, H., 1973: A new genus ofCompositae (Astereae) from the flora Zambesiaca area. — Garcia de Orta1: 67–68.

  152. Wild, H., 1974: New and interestingCompositae from South-central Africa, 2. — Kirkia9: 293–300.

  153. Zardini, E. M., 1981: Contribuciones para una monografia del géneroConyza Less. II. Rehabilitación del géneroLaennecia Cass. — Darwiniana23: 159–169.

  154. Zardini, E. M., 1985: Revision del géneroNoticastrum (Compositae-Astereae). — Revista Mus. La Plata, Secc. Bot.13: 313–424.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Xiaoping, Z., Bremer, K. A cladistic analysis of the tribeAstereae (Asteraceae) with notes on their evolution and subtribal classification. Pl Syst Evol 184, 259–283 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00937439

Download citation

Key words

  • Angiosperms
  • Asteraceae
  • Astereae
  • Cladistics
  • evolution
  • phylogeny
  • classification