Morphometric relationships between populations ofPapaver radicatum within the southern Norwegian mountains were investigated using canonical variates analysis andWard's clustering on capsule and leaf character sets. The survey describes patterns of variation among 13 wild-scored populations from five geographically disjunct localities, usually assigned to five races or subspecies. Our results from wild-collected material largely support earlier findings based on univariate statistics on cultivated material. In general, populations from within a disjunct locality (=subspecies) are most similar to other populations from the same locality. However, the subspecies vary in the degree to which they are differentiated in capsule morphology. The subsp.groevudalense populations are morphologically close to the main group of subsp.ovatilobum populations. Subspp.intermedium andoeksendalense are clearly distinct from one another and from the other subspecies, whereas the single subsp.gjaerevolli population is more similar to theovatilobum/groevudalense complex. Variation in leaf characters showed only partial congruence with variation in capsule characters. The pattern of morphological relationships among the subspecies is thus more complex than previously thought. The subspecies may have become differentiated during a period of isolation, but such results alone cannot indicate the duration of such a period.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bloom, W. L., 1976: Multivariate analysis of the introgressive replacement ofClarkia nitens byClarkia speciosa polyantha (Onagraceae). — Evolution30: 412–424.
Campbell, N. A., Atchley, W. R., 1981: The geometry of canonical variate analysis. — Syst. Zool.30: 268–280.
Doyle, J. J., 1983: Leaf morphology ofClaytonia virginica: racial and clinal variation. — Canad. J. Bot.62: 1469–1473.
Endler, J. A., 1982: Problems in distinguishing historical from ecological factors in biogeography. — Amer. Zool.22: 441–452.
—, 1983: Testing causal hypotheses in the study of geographical variation. — InFelsenstein, J. (Ed.): Numerical taxonomy, pp. 424–443. — Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo: Springer.
Everitt, B., 1974: Cluster analysis. — London: Heinemann.
—, 1978: Graphical techniques for multivariate data. — London: Heinemann.
Faegri, K., 1963: Problems of immigration and dispersal of the Scandinavian flora. — InLöve, A., Löve, D., (Eds.): The North Atlantic Biota and their history, pp. 221–232. — London: Pergamon Press.
Gjaerevoll, O., 1963: Survival of plants on nunataks in Norway during the Pleistocene glaciation. — InLöve, A., Löve, D., (Eds.): The North Atlantic Biota and their history, pp. 261–283. — London: Pergamon Press.
Gower, J. C., Ross, G. J. S., 1969: Minimum spanning trees and single linkage cluster analysis. — Applied Statistics18: 54–64.
Heywood, J. S., Levin, D. A., 1984: Allozyme variation inGaillardia pulchella andG. amblodon (Compositae): relation to morphological and chromosomal variation and to geographical isolation. — Syst. Bot.9: 448–457.
Hultén, E., 1971: Atlas över Växternas Utbredning i Norder. — Stockholm: Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalts Förlag.
Knaben, G., 1959a: On the evolution of theRadicatum group of theScapiflora Papavers as studied in 70 and 56 chromosome species. Part A. Cytotaxonomical aspects. — Opera Bot.2 (3): 1–74.
—, 1959b: On the evolution of theRadicatum group of theScapiflora Papavers as studied in 70 and 56 chromosome species. Part B. Experimental studies. — Opera Bot.3 (3): 1–96.
—, 1979: Additional experimental studies in thePapaver Radicatum group. — Bot. Notiser132: 483–490.
Löve, A., Löve, D., (Eds.), 1963: North Atlantic Biota and their history. — Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Mastenbroek, O., Prentice, H. C., Kamps-Heinsbroek, R., Brederode, J. van, Niemann, G. J., Nigtevecht, G. van, 1983: Geographic trends in flavone-glycosylation genes and seed morphology in EuropeanSilene pratensis (Caryophyllaceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.141: 257–271.
Mowat, A. B., Walters, S. M., 1964:Papaver L. — InTutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M., Webb, D. A (Eds.): Flora Europaea1. — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nordal, I., 1985: Overvintringsteori og evolusjonshastighet. — Blyttia43: 33–41.
Nordhagen, R., 1931: Studien über die Skandinavischen Rassen desPapaver radicatum Rottb., sowie einige mit denselben verwechselte neue Arten. — Bergens Museums Årbok Naturvidenskapelig rekke (1931)12: 1–50.
—, 1936: Skandinavias fjellflora og dens relasjoner till den siste istid. — Nordiska (19. skandinaviska) natur forskar mötet i Helsingfors 1936, 93–124.
Prentice, H. C., 1980: Variation inSilene dioica (L.)Clairv.: numerical analysis of populations from Scotland. — Watsonia13: 11–26.
—, 1984: Enzyme polymorphism, morphometric variation and population structure in a restricted endemic.Silene diclinis (Caryophyllaceae). — Biol. J. Linn. Soc.22: 125–143.
—, 1986: Continuous variation and classification. — InStyles, B. T., (Ed.): Infraspecific classification of wild and cultivated plants, pp. 21–32. — Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snaydon, R. W., Davies, T. M., 1982: Rapid divergence of plant populations in response to recent changes in soil condition. — Evolution36: 289–297.
Vorren, K.-D., 1978: Late and middle Weichselian stratigraphy of Andøya, north Norway. — Boreas7: 19–38.
Webster, R., 1979: Quantitative and numerical methods in soil classification and survey. — Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Ward, J. H., 1963: Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. — J. Amer. Statistical Assoc.58: 236–244.
About this article
Cite this article
Selin, E., Prentice, H.C. Morphometric analysis of disjunctPapaver radicatum (Papaveraceae) populations in southern Norway. Pl Syst Evol 159, 237–247 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00935975
- Papaver radicatum
- Canonical variates analysis
- cluster analysis
- geographic differentiation
- isolated populations
- Flora of Southern Norway
- the refugium controversy