Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Properties of a blood-meal-induced midgut lectin from the tsetse flyGlossina morsitans

Abstract

The properties of a blood-meal-induced lectin (agglutinin) from the midgut ofGlossina morsitans capable of agglutinatingTrypanosoma brucei were studied in vitro. The midgut homogenate from flies that had been fed twice had the highest agglutination activity, followed by that from the once-fed flies and that from the unfed insects. As compared with the bloodstream-form trypanosomes, a much lower concentration of the midgut homogenate was required for agglutination of the procyclic parasites. Furthermore, the agglutination process was specifically inhibited byD-glucosamine. Soybean trypsin inhibitor abrogated agglutination of the bloodstreamform parasites, whereas the procyclics were unaffected. The agglutination process was temperature-sensitive, with little activity being evident between 4° and 15°C. Similarly, heating the midguts to 60°–100°C led to loss of activity. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography, the agglutination activity co-eluted with trypsin activity at approximately 50% NaCl. These results suggest a very close relationship between midgut trypsin-like enzyme and the agglutinin. Since successful agglutination of bloodstream-form trypanosomes requires protease activity, it may be that the enzyme cleaves off some surface molecules on the parasite surface, thus exposing the lectin-binding sites.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Barondes SH (1981) Lectins: their multiple endogenous cellular functions. Annu Rev Biochem 50:207–231

  2. Boman HG, Hultmark D (1987) Cell-free immunity in insects. Annu Rev Microbiol 41:103–126

  3. Brun R, Jenni L (1977) A new semi-defined medium forTrypanosoma brucei spp. Acta Trop (Basel) 34:21–33

  4. Cheeseman MT, Gooding RH (1985) Proteolytic enzymes from tsetse fliesClossina morsitans andGlossina palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae). Insect Biochem 15:677–680

  5. Gooding RH, Rolseth BM (1976) Digestive process of haematophagus insects. XI. Partial purification and some properties of six proteolytic enzymes from tsetse flyGlossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae). Can J Zool 54:1950–1959

  6. Ibrahim EAR, Ingram GA, Molyneux DH (1984) Haemagglutinins and parasite agglutinins in haemolymph and gut ofGlossina. Trop Med Parasitol 35:151–156

  7. Imbuga MO, Osir EO, Labongo VL, Darji N, Otieno LH (1992) Studies on tsetse midgut factors that induce differentiation of bloodstreamTrypanosoma brucei in vitro. Parasitol Res 78:10–15

  8. Ingram GA, Molyneux DH (1990) Haemagglutins in the haemolymph ofGlossina fuscipes fuscipes: isolation, partial characterization, selected physico-chemical properties and carbohydrate-binding specificities. Insect Biochem 20:13–27

  9. Lanham SM, Godfrey DG (1970) Isolation of salivarian trypanosomes from man and other animals using DEAE cellulose. Exp Parasitol 28:521–534

  10. Maudlin I (1991) Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions among tsetse immune system, symbionts, and parasites. Adv Dis Vector Res 7:117–148

  11. Maudlin I, Welburn SC (1987) Lectin mediated establishment of midgutinfections ofTrypanosoma congolense andTrypanosoma brucei inGlossina morsitans. Trop Med Parasitol 38:167–170

  12. Maudlin I, Welburn SC (1988a) The role of lectins and trypanosome genotype in the maturation of midgut infections inGlossina morsitans. Trop Med Parasitol 39:56–58

  13. Maudlin I, Welburn SC (1988b) Tsetse immunity and the transmission of trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Today 4:109–111

  14. McKenzie ANJ, Preston TM (1992) Purification and characterization of a galactose-specific agglutinin from the haemolymph of the larval stages of the insectCalliphora vomitoria. Dev Comp Immunol 16:31–39

  15. Molyneux DH, Stiles JK (1991) Trypanosomatid-vector interactions. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 71 [Suppl 1]:151–166

  16. Natori S (1990) Dual functions of insect immunity proteins in defence and development. Res Immunol 141:938–939

  17. Osir EO, Imbuga MO, Onyango P (1993) Inhibition ofGlossina morsitans midgut trypsin activity byD-glucosamine. Parasitol Res 79:93–97

  18. Otieno LH, Darji N, Onyango P, Mpanga E (1983) Some observations on factors associated with the development ofTrypanosoma brucei brucei infections inGlossina morsitans morsitans. Acta Trop (Basel) 40:113–120

  19. Pereira MEA, Andrade AFB, Ribeiro JMC (1981) Lectins of distinct specificity inRhodnius prolixus. Science 211:597–600

  20. Stiles JK, Ingram GA, Wallbanks KR, Molyneux DH, Maudlin I, Welburn S (1990) Identification of midgut trypanolysin and trypanoagglutinin inGlossina palpalis spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae). Parasitol Res 101:369–376

  21. Van den Abbelle J, Decleir W (1992) Study of the vectorial capacity ofGlossina sp. related to its digestive physiology and rearing conditions: tsetse control diagnosis and chemotherapy using nuclear techniques. IAEA-TECDOC-634. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 91–103

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to E. O. Osir.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Abubakar, L., Osir, E.O. & Imbuga, M.O. Properties of a blood-meal-induced midgut lectin from the tsetse flyGlossina morsitans . Parasitol Res 81, 271–275 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00931529

Download citation

Keywords

  • Trypsin
  • Protease Activity
  • Trypsin Inhibitor
  • Surface Molecule
  • Trypsin Activity