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Comparison of the effects of the membraneassociated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase on Ca2+-ATPase function in cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum

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Abstract

In both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) there are several systems involved in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase function. These include substrate level regulation, covalent modification via phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of phospholamban by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) as well as direct CaM kinase phosphorylation of the Ca2+-ATPase. Studies comparing, the effects of PKA and CaM kinase on cardiac Ca2+-ATPase function have yielded differing results; similar studies have not been performed in slow-twitch skeletal muscle. It has been suggested recently, however, that phospholamban is not tightly coupled to the Ca2+-ATPase in SR vesicles from slow-twitch skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that assay conditions strongly influence the extent of CaM kinase-dependent Ca2+-ATPase stimulation seen in both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. Addition of calmodulin (0.2 μM) directly to the Ca2+ transport assay medium results in minimal (∼ 112–130% of control) stimulation of Ca2+ uptake activity when the Ca2+ uptake reaction is initiated by the addition of either ATP or Ca2+/EGTA. On the other hand, prephosphorylation of the SR by the endogenous CaM kinase and subsequent transfer of the membranes to the Ca2+ transport assay medium results in stimulation of Ca2+ uptake activity (202% of control). These effects are observable in both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle SR. PKA stimulates Ca2+ uptake markedly (215% of control) when the Ca2+ uptake reaction is initiated by the addition of prephosphorylated SR membranes or by Ca2+/EGTA but minimally (130% of control) when the Ca2+ uptake reaction is initiated by the addition of ATP. These findings imply that (a) phospholamban is coupled to the Ca2+-ATPase in slow-twitch skeletal muscle SR (as in cardiac SR), and (b) the amount of Ca2+ uptake stimulation seen upon the addition of calmodulin or PKA depends strongly on the assay conditions employed. Our observations help to explain the wide range of effects of calmodulin or PKA addition reported in previous studies. It should be noted that, since CaM kinase is now known to phosphorylate the Ca2+-ATPase in addition to phospholamban, further studies are required to determine the relative contributions of phospholambanversus Ca2+-ATPase phosphorylation in the stimulation of Ca2+-ATPase function by CaM kinase. Also, earlier studies attributing all of the effects of CaM kinase stimulation of Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity to phospholamban phosphorylation need to be re-examined.

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Correspondence to Njanoor Narayanan.

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Hawkins, C., Xu, A. & Narayanan, N. Comparison of the effects of the membraneassociated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase on Ca2+-ATPase function in cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mol Cell Biochem 142, 131–138 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00928934

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Key Words

  • cardiac muscle
  • slow-twitch skeletal muscle
  • sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • Ca2+ uptake
  • CaM kinase