The effects on the three-spined stickleback, (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), of various combinations of stresses due to parasitism bySchistocephalus solidus, dietary restriction, and exposure to cadmium (0.032 mg l−1) were investigated. Sticklebacks exposed to a combination of all three stressors died first with a median period of survival significantly shorter than that for fish subjected to fewer stressors. Compared with fish on a restricted diet alone, parasitism plus dietary restriction also reduced survival; however, the combination of cadmium exposure and restricted diet did not. A possible explanation for this finding is proposed.
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Pascoe, D., Woodworth, J. The effects of joint stress on sticklebacks. Z. Parasitenkd. 62, 159–163 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00927861
- Schistocephalus solidus
- Gasterosteus aculeatus
- Cadmium toxicity
- Dietary restriction