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Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology

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  24. Rapoport, R. N. (1985).Children, youth, and families: The action-research relationship. Cambridge: University Press.

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  26. Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: A social policy of empowerment over prevention.American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 1–25.

  27. Rappaport, J. (1984). Seeking justice in the real world: A further explication of value contexts.Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 208–216.

  28. Rappaport, J. (1985a). The power of empowerment language.Social Policy, 16, 15–21.

  29. Rappaport, J. (1985b).The death and resurrection of community mental health. Invited address presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

  30. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., & Davidson, W. S. (1979). Demonstration research and manifest versus true adoption: The natural history of a research project to divert adolescents from the legal system. In R. F. Munoz, L. R. Snowden, & J. G. Kelly (Eds.).Social and psychological research in community settings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  31. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Toro, P. A., McFadden, L. S., Reischl, T. M., Roberts, L. J., Salem, D. A., Stein, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1985). Collaborative research with a mutual help organization.Social Policy, 15, 12–24.

  32. Rappaport, J., Swift, C., & Hess, R. (Eds.). (1984).Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Haworth.

  33. Reischl, T. M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Rappaport, J. (1986).Mutual help mechanisms in the empowerment of former mental patients. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

  34. Riger, S. (1984). Vehicles for empowerment: The case of feminist movement organizations.Prevention in Human Services, 3, 99–118.

  35. Royce (1984). Theoretical psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.),Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 3). New York: Wiley.

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  37. Sarason, S. B. (1972a).The creation of settings and the future societies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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  39. Sarason, S. B. (1974).The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a Community Psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  40. Seidman, E. (Ed.). (1983).Handbook of social intervention. Beverly Hills: Sage.

  41. Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (Eds.). (1986).Redefining social problems. New York: Plenum.

  42. Serrano-Garcia, I. (1984). The illusion of empowerment: Community development within a colonial context.Prevention in Human Services, 3, 173–200.

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  44. Swift, C. (1984). Empowerment: An antidote for folly. In J. Rappaport, C. Swift, & R. Hess (Eds.),Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Haworth.

  45. Trickett, E. J. (1984). Toward a distinctive Community Psychology: An ecological metaphor for the conduct of community research and the nature of training.American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 261–280.

  46. Trickett, E. J., Kelly, J. G., & Vincent, T. (1985). The spirit of ecological inquiry in community research. In E. Susskind & D. E. Klein (Eds.),Community research: Methods, paradigms, and applications. New York: Praeger.

  47. Trickett, E. J., McConahay, J. B., Phillips, D., & Ginter, M. (1985). Natural experiments and the educational context: The environment and effects of an alternative inner-city public school on adolescents.American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 617–644.

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  52. Zimmerman, M. A., McFadden, L. S., Toro, P. A., Salem, D. A., Reischl, T. M., Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., & Berggren, D. (1985).Expansion of a mutual help organization: The “Johnny Appleseed” approach. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago.

Books and Monographs

  1. Rappaport, J., Chinsky, J. M., & Cowen, E. L. (1971).Innovations in helping chronic patients: College students in a mental institution. New York: Academic Press.

  2. Rappaport, J. (1977).Community psychology: Values, research and action. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

  3. Rappaport, J., Swift, C., & Hess, R. (Eds.). (1984).Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Haworth.

  4. Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (Eds.). (1986).Redefining social problems. New York: Plenum Press.

Journal Articles and Chapters in Books

  1. Zax, M., Cowen, E. L., Rappaport, J., Beach, D. R., & Laird, J. D. (1968). A follow-up study of children identified early as emotionally disturbed.Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 32, 369–374.

  2. Cowen, E. L., Huser, J., Beach, D. R., & Rappaport, J. (1970). Parental perceptions of young children and their relation to indices of adjustment.Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 34, 97–103. (Reprinted in J. Fisher (Ed.),Measuring practice. New York: Free Press, 1986).

  3. Chinsky, J. M., & Rappaport, J. (1970). Brief critique of the meaning and reliability of “accurate empathy” ratings.Psychological Bulletin, 73, 379–382.

  4. Cowen, E. L., Chinsky, J. M., & Rappaport, J. (1970). An undergraduate practicum in community mental health.Community Mental Health Journal, 6, 91–100.

  5. Rappaport, J., & Chinsky, J. M. (1970). Behavior ratings of chronic hospitalized patients: Cross-situational and cross-rater agreement.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 394–397.

  6. Chinsky, J. M., & Rappaport, J. (1970). Attitude change in college students and chronic patients: A dual perspective.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 388–394.

  7. O'Connor, R. D., & Rappaport, J. (1970). Application of social learning principles to the training of ghetto Blacks.American Psychologist, 25, 659–661. (Reprinted in H. C. Lundgren (Ed.),An introduction to social psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1973).

  8. Chinsky, J. M., & Rappaport, J. (1971). Evaluation of a technique for the behavioral assessment of nonprofessional mental health workers.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 400–402.

  9. Rappaport, J., & Sorenson, J. (1971). Teaching psychology to disadvantaged youth: Enhancing the relevance of psychology through public education.Journal of School Psychology, 9, 120–126.

  10. Zax, M., Cowen, E. L., Beach, D. R., & Rappaport, J. (1972). Longitudinal relationships among aptitude, achievement and adjustment measures of school children.Journal of Genetic Psychology, 121, 145–154.

  11. Rappaport, J., & Chinsky, J. M. (1972). “Accurate empathy”: Confusion of a construct.Psychological Bulletin, 77, 400–404. (Reprinted in Marks, Bergin, Lang, Matarazzo, Patterson, & Strupp (Eds.).Psychotherapy and behavior change 1972. Chicago: Aldine, 1973).

  12. Rappaport, J., & O'Connor, R. D. (1972). Advocacy and accountability in consultation to the poor.Mental Hygiene, 56, 39–47.

  13. Rappaport, J., Bernstein, D. A., Hogan, M., Kane, J., Plunk, M., & Sholder, M. (1972). Fraternal and communal living: Values and behavior on the campus.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19, 296–300.

  14. Rappaport, J., Chinsky, J. M., & Mace, D. (1972). Matching of chronic hospitalized patient groups: Empirical failure of a methodologically “sound” procedure.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 462.

  15. Rappaport, J., Gross, T., & Lepper, C. (1973). Modeling, sensitivity training and instruction: Implications for the training of college student volunteers and for outcome research.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 99–107.

  16. Rappaport, J., & O'Connor, R. D. (1973). The psychological center in a psychology department.Professional Psychology, 4, 92–98.

  17. Lindquist, C. U., & Rappaport, J. (1973). Selection of college student therapeutic agents: Further analysis of the GAIT technique.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 316.

  18. Rappaport, J., & Chinsky, J. M. (1974). Models for delivery of service: An historical and conceptual perspective.Professional Psychology, 5, 42–50.

  19. Rappaport, J. (1974). College students and chronic patients: Current directions in outcome, selection, and training.VA Cooperative Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 119–12.

  20. Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (1974). The educational pyramid: A paradigm for research, training, and manpower utilization in community psychology.American Journal of Community Psychology, 2, 119–129.

  21. Wilson, M. N., & Rappaport, J. (1974). Personal self-disclosure: Expectancy and situational effects.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 901–908.

  22. Rappaport, J., Davidson, W. S., Wilson, M. N., & Mitchell, A. (1975). Alternatives to blaming the victim of the environment: Our places to stand have not moved the earth.American Psychologist, 40, 525–528. (Reprinted in Pre-Conference Materials,National Training Conference in Community Psychology. Austin, Texas, 1975.)

  23. Alden, L., Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (1975). College students as interventionists for primary-grade youngsters: A comparison of structured academic and companionship programs for children from low-income families.American Journal of Community Psychology, 3, 261–271.

  24. Golding, S. L., Becker, E., Sherman, S., & Rappaport, J. (1975). The behavioral expectations scale: Assessment of expectations for interaction with the mentally ill.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 109.

  25. Critelli, J. W., Rappaport, J., & Golding, S. L. (1976). Role played self-disclosure as a function of liking and knowing.Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 89–97.

  26. Rappaport, J. (1977). From Noah to Babel: Relationships between conceptions, values, analysis levels, and social intervention strategies. In I. Iscoe, B. Bloom, & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.),Community psychology in transition. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

  27. Seidman, E., Rappaport, J., & Davidson, W. S. (1976).Adolescents in legal jeopardy: Initial success replication of an alternative to the criminal justice system. Invited address presented to American Psychological Association. (Reprinted in R. Ku & C. Blew.The adolescent diversion project: A university's approach to delinquency prevention. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement & Criminal Justice, 1977; Summary also published inNewsletter of the Division of Consulting Psychology, 1976,28, 16–21; Reprinted in R. R. Ross & P. Gendreau (Eds.),Effective correctional treatment. Toronto: Butterworth, 1980; Reprinted inIntroduction to Applied Psychology. Richmond, B. C. Canada: Open Learning Institute, 1983).

  28. Davidson, W. S., Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Berck, P. L., Rapp, C., Rhodes, W., & Herring, J. (1977). Diversion program for juvenile offenders.Social Work Research and Abstracts, 1, 47–56.

  29. Davidson, W. S., & Rappaport, J. (1978). Toward a model for advocacy: Values, roles, and conceptions from community psychology. In G. H. Weber & G. J. McCall (Eds.),Social scientists as advocates: Views from applied disciplines. Beverly Hills: Russell Sage.

  30. Herzberger, S. L., Linney, J. A., Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (1979). The pre-school and primary locus of control scale: Is it ready for use?Developmental Psychology, 15, 320–324.

  31. Conter, K., Seidman, E., Rappaport, J., Kniskern, D., & Desaulniers, G. (1979). A comparative evaluation of two volunteer programs by the volunteers themselves: The importance of commitment and supervision. Abstracted inChild Welfare, 58, 284–285.

  32. Seidman, E., Linney, J. A., Rappaport, J., Herzberger, S. L., Kramer, J., & Alden, L. (1979). Assessment of classroom behavior: A multi-attribute, multi-source approach to instrument development and validation.Journal of Educational Psychology, 4, 451–464.

  33. Kramer, J., Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (1979). The contribution of personal characteristics and interview training to the effectiveness of college student mental health workers.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26, 344–351.

  34. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., & Davidson, W. S. (1979). Demonstration research and manifest versus true adoption: The natural history of a research project to divert adolescents from the legal system. In R. F. Munoz, L. R. Snowden, & J. G. Kelly (Eds.),Research in social contexts: Bringing about change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  35. Rappaport, J., & Cleary, C. P. (1980). Labeling theory and the social psychology of experts and helpers. In M. S. Gibbs, J. R. Lachenmeyer, & J. Sigal (Eds.),Community psychology: Theoretical and empirical approaches. New York: Gardner.

  36. Rappaport, J., Lamiell, J. T., & Seidman, E. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in the juvenile justice system: Know and tell. In J. Monahan (Ed.),Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the criminal justice system. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  37. Rappaport, J., & Holden, K. (1981). Prevention and violence: The case for non-specific social policy. In J. R. Hays, T. K. Roberts, & K. Solway (Eds.),Violence and the violent individual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Spectrum.

  38. Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: a social policy of empowerment over prevention. Presidential address to the Division of Community Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Published in theAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 1–25. (Reprinted inRedefining social problems. New York: Plenum Press, 1986).

  39. Rappaport, J. (1983). Public policy and the dilemmas of diversion. In R. J. Corrado, M. LeBanc, & J. Trepanier, (Eds.),Current issues in juvenile justice. Toronto: Butterworth.

  40. Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (1983),Social and Community Interventions. In E. Walker,The handbook of clinical psychology (pp. 759–794). New York: McGraw Hill.

  41. Rappaport, J. (1984). Community psychology. In R. Corsini (Ed.),Encyclopedia of Psychology (pp. 252–254). New York: Wiley.

  42. Maton, K., & Rappaport, J. (1984). Empowerment in a religious setting: A multivariate investigation.Prevention in Human Services, 3, 37–72.

  43. Rappaport, J. (1984). Seeking justice in the real world: A further explication of value contexts.Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 208–216.

  44. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Toro, P. A., McFadden, L. S., Reischl, T. M., Roberts, L. J., Salem, D. A., Stein, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1985). Finishing the unfinished business: Collaborative research with a mutual help organization.Social Policy, 15, 12–24.

  45. Rappaport, J. (1985). The power of empowerment language.Social Policy, 16, 15–21.

  46. Stein, C., & Rappaport, J. (1986). Social network interviews as sources of etic and emic data: A study of young married women. In S. Hobfoll (Ed.).Stress, social support and women. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

  47. Rappaport, J. (1986). Collaboration for empowerment: Creating the language of mutual help. In H. Boyte, & F. Riessman (Eds.),The new populism: the politics of empowerment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

  48. Toro, P., Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (in press). The social climate of mutual help groups.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Reviews

  1. Rappaport, J. (1970). Review ofCommunity life for the mentally ill, by G. Fairweatheret al. (Chicago: Aldine, 1969).Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 7, 192–193.

  2. Rappaport, J. (1975). “Psychologists, heal thyself.” Review of H. E. Mitchell (Ed.), The university and the urban crisis.American Journal of Community Psychology, 3, 403–405.

  3. Rappaport, J. (1979). Cotton candy and community. Review of P. Mann,Community psychology: Concepts and applications. (New York: The Free Press, 1978).Contemporary Psychology, 24, 425.

  4. Rappaport, J. (1979). Something old, something new... Review of J. M. Divic & M. Dinoff (Eds.),Aspects of community psychiatry: Review and preview. (University of Alabama Press, 1978).Contemporary Psychology, 24, 860–861.

  5. Rappaport, J. (1980). See more with Seymour. Review of S. B. Sarason & E. Lorentz,The challenge of the resource exchange network. (Jossey-Bass, 1979).Contemporary Psychology, 25, 126–127.

  6. Rappaport, J. (1983). A book of lists. Review of J. DiBella et al. (Eds.),Handbook of partial hospitalization. (Bruner/Mazel, 1982).Contemporary Psychology, 28, 218–220.

  7. Rappaport, J. (1983). Social cognition, social ecology and the world of action. Review of P. O'Neil, E. J. Trickett,Community consultation. (Jossey-Bass, 1982).Contemporary Psychology, 28, 929–930.

  8. Rappaport, J. (1987). Painting the portrait of action-research. Review of R. N. Rapoport (Ed.),Children, youth and families: The action-research relationship. (Cambridge, 1985).Contemporary Psychology, 31, 942–943.

Comment

  1. Rappaport, J. (1970). Nonprofessionals, B. A.'s and manpower.American Psychologist, 2, 361.

  2. Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (1974). Addendum to “Jewishness, Blackishness, and the nature-nurture controversy”: You got to have a dream, but it's not enough.American Psychologist, 29, 569–570.

  3. Chinsky, J. M., & Rappaport, J. (1980). Emory L. Cowen: A tribute on presentation of the American Psychological Association Division 27 Distinguished Contributions Award.American Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 245–258.

  4. Rappaport, J. Standards for juvenile justice. (1979). Divisionof Community Psychology Newsletter, 12(Fall issue).

  5. Rappaport, J. (1980). Professionals and diletantes or scholars and servants?Division of Community Psychology Newsletter, 13 (Spring issue).

  6. Rappaport, J. (1980). Informing social ecology.Division of Community Psychology Newsletter, 13(Summer issue).

  7. Rappaport, J. Foreward to S. Sue and T. Moore (Eds.). (1984).The pluralistic society. New York: Human Sciences.

  8. Rappaport, J. (1986). Cultural relativity and diversity in the pursuit of science.The Community Psychologist, 19(2).

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Author information

Correspondence to Julian Rappaport.

Additional information

This paper is based on a presentation titled “Terms of Empowerment: People, Programs, Policy and Professionals,” given at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, August 1986. Thanks is extended to Robert Felner, Arlene Rappaport, Thomas Reischl, Edward Seidman, and Marc Zimmerman for their helpful suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Preparation of this paper was facilitated by grant #37390 from the National Institute of Mental Health.

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Rappaport, J. Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology. Am J Commun Psychol 15, 121–148 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00919275

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Keywords

  • Social Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Community Psychology