Research findings regarding the impact of low achievement (LA) on the social status and social behavior of learning-disabled (LD) children have been equivocal. Reported findings suggested that a failure of previous studies to control for the impact of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may account for the lack of consensus among previous studies. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relative contributions of LA, LD, and ADHD to problems in social status and social behavior. This was accomplished by assigning second-through sixth-grade boys to one of six groups: ADHD/LD,ADHD/LA, ADHD, LD, LA, and control. Results indicated that serious problems with peer rejection, peer popularity, and social behavior were the most strongly related to the combination of ADHD and LD. Discussion of the implications of current findings includes the importance of identifying appropriate behavioral and academic subgroups when investigating social status and behavior problems.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
American Psychiatric Association (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Asher, S. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1986). Identifying children who are rejected by their peers.Developmental Psychology, 22, 444–449.
Atkins, M. S., Pelham, W. E., & Licht, M. H. (1989). The differential validity of teacher ratings of inattention/overactivity and aggression.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 423–435.
Bursuck, W. (1983). Sociometric status, behavior ratings, and social knowledge of LD and low achieving students.Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 329–338.
Bursuck, W. (1989). A comparison of students with learning disabilities to low achieving and higher achieving students on three dimensions of social competence.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 188–194.
Cantwell, D. P., & Baker, L. (1991). Association between attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 88–95.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Continuities and changes in children's social status: A five-year longitudinal study.Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 261–282.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective.Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.),Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17–59). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dodge, K. A., & Feldman, E. (1990). Issues in social cognition and sociometric status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.),Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 119–155). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dunn, L. M., & Markwardt, F. C. (1970).Pcabody Individual Achievement Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Flicek, M., & Landau, S. (1985). Social status problems of learning disabled and hyperactive/learning disabled boys.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 340–344.
Glow, R. A., & Glow, P. H. (1980). Peer and self rating: Children's perception of behavior relevant to hyperkinetic impulse disorder.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 471–490.
Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990).Social Skills Rating System Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Gresham, F. M., Reschly, D. J., & Carey, M. P. (1987). Teachers as “tests“: Classification accuracy and concurrent validation in the identification of learning disabled children.School Psychology Review, 16, 543–553.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1987). On the distinction between attentional deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology.Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443–463.
LaGreca, A. M., & Stone, W. L. (1990). LD status and achievement: Confounding variables in the study of children's social status, self-esteem, and behavioral functioning.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 483–490.
Landau, S., & Milich, R. (1988). Social communication patterns of attention-deficit-disordered boys.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 69–81.
Landau, S., & Milich, R. (1990). Assessment of children's social status and peer relations. In A. M. LaGreca (Ed.),Through the eyes of the child: Obtaining self-reports from children and adolescents (pp. 259–291). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Landau, S., Milich, R., & Whitten, P. (1984). A comparison of teacher and peer assessment of social status.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 13, 44–49.
Landau, S., & Moore, L. A. (1991). Social skill deficits in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.School Psychology Review, 20, 235–251.
Loney, J., & Milich, R. (1982). Hyperactivity, inattention, and aggression in clinical practice. In M. Wolraich & D. Routh (Eds.),Advances in behavioral pediatrics (Vol. 2, pp. 113–147). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
McGee, R., & Share, D. L. (1988). Attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity and academic failure: Which comes first and which should be treated?Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 318–325.
Milich, R., & Fitzgerald, G. (1985). Validation of inattention/overactivity and aggression ratings with classroom observations.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 139–140.
Milich, R., & Landau, S. (1984). A comparison of the social status and social behavior of aggressive and aggressive/withdrawn boys.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 277–288.
Milich, R., & Landau, S. (1988). Teacher ratings of inattention/ overactivity and aggression: Validation with playroom observation data.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 92–97.
Milich, R., & Landau, S. (1989). The role of social status in differentiating subgroups of hyperactive children. In L. M. Bloomingdale & J. M. Swanson (Eds.),Attention deficit disorder (Vol. 4, pp. 1–16). New York: Pergamon Press.
Pekarik, E., Prinz, R., Liebert, D., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. (1976). The Pupil Evaluation Inventory: A sociometric technique for addressing children's social behavior.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 83–97.
Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., & Murphy, H. A. (1989). Normative data on the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 259–262.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (1991).Assessment (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Sater, G. M., & French, D. C. (1989). A comparison of the social competencies of learning disabled and low achieving elementary-aged children.Journal of Special Education, 23, 29–42.
Singleton, L. C., & Asher, S. R. (1977). Peer preferences and social interaction among thirdgrade children in an integrated school district.Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 330–336.
Stuart, D. L., Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1991). Teacher ratings of social skills in popular and rejected males and females.School Psychology Quarterly, 6, 16–26.
Taylor, H. G. (1988). Learning disabilities. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.),Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (2nd ed., pp. 402–450). New York: Guilford Press.
Vaughn, S., & LaGreca, A. M. (1988). Teaching social skills to LD students. In K. A. Kavale (Ed.),Learning disabilities: State of the art and practice. San Diego: College Hill Press.
Wechsler, D. (1974).Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Cleveland: The Psychological Corporation.
Woodcock, R. W. (1985).Correction for regression when using standard scores. Bulletin 5. Allen, TX: DLM Assessment Services.
About this article
Cite this article
Flicek, M. Social status of boys with both academic problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 20, 353–366 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00918981
- Behavior Problem
- Social Status
- Social Behavior
- Research Finding
- Current Finding