Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Toward affordable, sustainable eye care

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Sommer A. Global health leadership. A continuing US challenge. West J Med 1992; 157: 71–3.

  2. 2.

    Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, Quigley H, Ezrine S. Socioeconomic status and visual impairment among urban Americans. Arch Ophthalmol 1991; 109: 637–41.

  3. 3.

    World Development Report: Investing in Health. The World Bank, Washington DC: 1993.

  4. 4.

    Tenth Meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Group on the Prevention of Blindness. Geneva: World Health Organization 1993 PBL/AG/93.

  5. 5.

    Javitt J, Sommer A, Venkataswamy G. The economic and social impact of restoring sight. In: Henkind P (ed.) ACTA, XXIV International Congress of Ophthalmology. Philadelphia, Lippincott 1983: 1308–12.

  6. 6.

    Verrey JD, Foster A, Wormald R, Akuamoa C. Chronic glaucoma in Northern Ghana — a retrospective study of 397 patients. Eye 1990; 4: 115–20.

  7. 7.

    Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Witt K, Katz J, Royall RM. Blindness and visual impairment in an American urban population. The Baltimore Eye Survey. Arch Ophthalmol 1990; 108: 286–90.

  8. 8.

    Brilliant GE, Lepkowski JM, Zurita B, Thulasiraj RD, the Operations Research Group. Social determinants of cataract surgery utilization in South India. Arch Ophthalmol 1991; 109: 584–9.

  9. 9.

    Chatterjee A, Milton RC, Thyle S. Prevalence and aetiology of cataract in Punjab. Br J Ophthalmol 1982; 66: 35–42.

  10. 10.

    Netland PA. Age of patients with cataract in India. Arch Ophthalmol 1992; 110: 596–7.

  11. 11.

    Javitt JC, Canner JK, Sommer A. Cost effectiveness of current approaches to the control of retinopathy in type I diabetics. Ophthalmology 1989; 96: 255–64.

  12. 12.

    Javitt JC, Aiello LP, Chiang Y, Ferris FLIII, Canner JK, Greenfield S. Preventive eye care in persons with diabetes is costsaving to the federal government: implications for health care reform. Diabetes Care (in press).

  13. 13.

    Pokhrel RP, Gilbert SS. Sustainable program development for blindness prevention: Nepal. Semin Ophthalmol 1993; 8: 177–82.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Alfred Sommer.

Additional information

Adapted from Keynote Addresses to the 5th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, Berlin, Germany, May 9, 1994, and to the International Congress of Ophthalmology, Toronto, Canada, June 29, 1994.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sommer, A. Toward affordable, sustainable eye care. Int Ophthalmol 18, 287–292 (1994).

Download citation

Key words

  • blindness prevention
  • cataract
  • eye care
  • health services
  • policy