Two steps are suggested for the acid-base catalysis. A molecular compound is formed in the first step between the substrate and the ion or a neutral molecule. This molecular compound passes into the final state in the second step through a cyclic active complex with alternation of ruptured and formed bonds.
The method of the cyclic active complexes was applied to some cases of Friedel-Crafts, Wurtz, Ziegler, Grignard, Kizhner and Knoevenagel reactions and to some instances of decarboxylation, nitration and to the reactions of organic peroxides.
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Syrkin, Y.K. Mechanisms of molecular and acid-base catalytic reactions in organic chemistry. Russ Chem Bull 8, 575–585 (1959). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00915848
- Organic Chemistry
- Catalytic Reaction