Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Yale Children's Inventory (YCI): An instrument to assess children with attentional deficits and learning disabilities I. Scale development and psychometric properties

Abstract

The Yale Children's Inventory (YCI), a parent based rating scale, and the scales derived from it have been developed to identify and measure multiple dimensions of learning disabilities with particular emphasis on attentional deficits. Scale construction was based on factor analytic procedures. Measures of internal consistency, test retest reliability, and coefficients of congruence support the reliability and stability of the 11 scales. A discriminant function classified normal and learning disabled children with a relatively high rate of accuracy. The relationship and content of the three relevant YCI scales were compared to the DSM-III diagnostic categories for ADD. As operationalized, DSM-III criteria for hyperactivity formed a cohesive factor, while criteria for attention and impulsivity were not distinguishable from each other since they loaded together on a single factor. In contrast, the equivalent YCI scales for attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity were found to be distinct.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1978). The Child Behavior Profile: I. Boys aged 6–11.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 478–488.

  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1979). The Child Behavior Profile: II. Boys aged 12–16 and girls aged 6–11 and 12–16.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 222–233.

  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1984). Psychopathology of childhood.Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 227–256.

  4. American Psychiatric Association (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

  5. Bosco, J. J., & Robin, S. S. (1980). Hyperkinesis: Prevalence and treatment. In C. K. Whalen & B. Henker (Eds.),Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment (pp. 173–187). New York: Academic Press.

  6. Cantwell, D. P. (Ed.). (1975).The hyperactive child: Diagnosis, management, current research (pp. 203–215). New York: Spectrum.

  7. Cantwell, D. P. (1978). Hyperactivity and social behavior.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1, 252–262.

  8. Cattell, R. B. (1966). The Stress test for the number of factors.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245–276.

  9. Conners, C. K. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children.American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 152–156.

  10. Conners, C. K. (1970). Symptom patterns in hyperactive, neurotic and normal children.Child Development, 41, 667–682.

  11. Conners, C. K. (1973). Rating scales for use in drug studies with children.Psychopharmacology Bulletin (Special issue, Pharmacology of Children), 24–29.

  12. Douglas, V. I. (1972). Stop, look, and listen: The problem of sustained attention and impulse control in hyperactive and normal children.Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 4, 259–282.

  13. Douglas, V. I., & Peters, K. G. (1979). Toward a clearer definition of the attentional deficit of hyperactive children. In G. Hale & M. Lewis (Eds.),Attention and the development of cognitive style (pp. 173–247). New York: Plenum Press.

  14. Dreger, R. M. (1981). First-, second-, and third-order factors from the children's behavioral classification project instrument and an attempt at rapprochement.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 252–260.

  15. Dykman, R., Ackerman, P. T., Clements, S. D., & Peters, J. E. (1971). Specific learning disabilities: An attentional deficit syndrome. In H. Myklebust (Ed.),Progress in learning disabilities (Vol. 2, pp. 56–93). New York: Grune and Stratton.

  16. Gittelman, R. (1983, February),Follow-up study of hyperactive children: A preliminary report. Paper presented at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  17. Gorsuch, R. L. (1974).Factor analysis. Philadelphia; W. B. Saunders.

  18. Harman, H. H. (1690).Modern factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  19. Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (1983). Long-term outcome of hyperactive children.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 53, 532–541.

  20. Hollingshead, A. B. (1957).Two factor index of social position. Unpublished working paper, Yale University.

  21. Jenkins, R. L., & Hewitt, L. (1944). Types of personality structure encountered in child guidance clinics.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 14, 84–94.

  22. Keogh, B. K., & MacMillan, D. L. (1983). The logic of sample selection: Who represents what?Exceptional Educational Quarterly, 4, 84–96.

  23. Keogh, B. K., Major, S. M., Reid, H. P., Gandara, P., & Omori, H. (1978). Marker variables: A search for comparability and generalizability in the field of learning disabilities.Learning Disability Quarterly, 1, 5–11.

  24. Keogh, B. K., Major, S. M., Reid, H. P., Omori, H., & Gandara, P. (1980). Proposed markers in learning disabilities research.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 21–31.

  25. Lahey, B. B., Green, K. D., & Forehand, R. (1980). On the independence of ratings of hyperactivity, conduct problems and attention deficits in children: A multiple regression analysis.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 566–574.

  26. Lahey, B. B., Stempniak, M., Robinson, E. J., & Tyroler, M. H., (1978). Hyperactivity and learning disabilities as independent dimensions of child behavior problems.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 333–340.

  27. Loney, J., Langhorne, J. E., & Paternite, C. E. (1978). Empirical basis for subgrouping the hyperkinetic/minimal brain dysfunction syndrome.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 431–441.

  28. Miller, L. C. (1967). Louisville Behavior Check List for males 6–12 years of age.Psychological Reports, 21, 885–896.

  29. Puig-Antich, J., &Chambers, W. (1978).The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age children (Kiddie-SADS). New York: New York State Psychiatric Association.

  30. Quay, H. C. (1979). Classification. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (pp. 1–42). New York: Wiley.

  31. Quay, H. C. (1983). A dimensional approach to behavior disorder: The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist.School Psychology Review, 12, 244–249.

  32. Quay, H. C., & Peterson, D. R. (1983).Interim manual for the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. Coral Gables: University of Miami.

  33. Ross, D. M., & Ross, S. A. (1976).Hyperactivity: Research, theory and action (pp. 23–60). New York: Wiley.

  34. Routh, D. K. (1980). Developmental and social aspects of hyperactivity. In C. K. Whalen & B. Henker (Eds.),Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment (pp. 55–73). New York: Academic Press.

  35. Rutter, M. (1978). Prevalence and types of dyslexia. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.),Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 5–28). New York: Oxford University Press.

  36. Silver, L. B. (1981). The relationship between learning disabilities, hyperactivity, distractability and behavioral problems.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 385–387.

  37. Skinner, H. A. (1981). Toward the integration of classification theory and methods.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 36, 861–867.

  38. Thurstone, L. L. (1947).Multiple factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  39. Tucker, L. R. (1951).A method for synthesis of factor analysis studies (Personnel Research Section Report, No. 984). Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army.

  40. United States Office of Education (1977). Assistance to states for education for handicapped children: Procedures for evaluating specific learning disabilities.Federal Register, 42(250), 62082–62085.

  41. Werry, J., Sprague, R., & Cohen, M. (1975). Conners Teacher Rating Scale for use in drug studies with children—An empirical study.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 217–229.

  42. Whalen, C. K. & Henker, B. (1976). Psychostimulants in children: A review and analysis.Psychological Bulletin, 83, 1113–1130.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Dr. Sally E. Shaywitz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shaywitz, S.E., Schnell, C., Shaywitz, B.A. et al. Yale Children's Inventory (YCI): An instrument to assess children with attentional deficits and learning disabilities I. Scale development and psychometric properties. J Abnorm Child Psychol 14, 347–364 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00915431

Download citation

Keywords

  • Internal Consistency
  • Analytic Procedure
  • Psychometric Property
  • Discriminant Function
  • Test Retest Reliability